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Comm Law

by: Ashley

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Invasion of Privacy
Andrew M Clark
Class Notes
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Popular in Communication

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley on Wednesday October 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 3310 - 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Andrew M Clark in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see COMMUNICATION LAW & ETHICS in Communication at University of Texas at Arlington.

Similar to COMM 3310 - 001 at UTA

Popular in Communication


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Date Created: 10/05/16
Invasion of Privacy Right to privacy in the U.S. has been diminishing for the past 100 yrs. due to: 1. The growth of the government  2. The growth of the mass media 3. Technology innovation  Comes through the 4  amendment.  Privacy laws arise at the end of the 19  century because of: 1. Movement from a rural to urban society  2. Yellow journalism  But modern enterprise and invention have, through innovations up privacy: 1. Commercial appropriation of name or likeness  2. Public disclosure of embarrassing private facts  3. Placing an individual in a false  light 4. Intensions upon physical seclusion  Appropriation  It’s illegal to appropriate an individual’s mane or likeness for commercial or trade purposes  without consent 1. Right to privacy  a. Protects from embarrassment and humiliation that can occur when a name or  picture is used without consent for advertising purpose b. Personal right  c. Protect individuals from emotional harm.  2. Right of publicity a. Protects individuals from the explotation of their name or likeness for commercial purposes.  b. It’s a property right i. It protects the economic value of the name or likeness. Ex: Kim  Kardashian SCOTUS only appropriation case concerned commercial use  a. Ex: Great Zucchini­ shout himself out of cannons  Use of name or likeness 1. What are names? a. Not limited to full names. Can be nicknames, stage names, pen names  2. People find out about it (protects image)  Likeness  1. What is likeness? a. Photographs, paintings, sketches, cartoons, fictional characters b. Look alike  c. Sound alike i. Ex: Beth Midilar; “Here’s Johnny” trademarked and linked to  appropriation  Magazines and books  Incidentals a. Is it incidental or core part of commercial message  News promos  Booth rule a. Was legitimate. Didn’t need permission  Consent as a defense 1. Written consent is generally uncontestable oral consent does not offer the same  protection; it can be easily contested. Life after death  The right to privacy is a personal night that dies with the individual  California and Michigan are exception depends on state and contract  Ex: cops pulled someone over and pulled his phone (sued for invasion of privacy)  2. Intrusion  It is illegal to intrude, physically or otherwise upon the seclusion or solitude of an individual  a. Trespass­ the intentional and unauthorized entry onto land or property occupied or  possessed by another  b. Intrusions may occur without trespass  a. Drones  Expectation of Privacy  a. Shulman v. Group with productions­ She’s in a bad accident; airlife comes with  reality tv shows­ doesn’t have an expectation of privacy in public but have  expectation of privacy in helicopter.  Subterfuge  Is the degree of intrusiveness offensive to a reasonable person.  Dietmann v. Time inc. ­ Diagnosed at home. Time sent undercover reporters, wrote story, he gets arrested, sued  for invasion of privacy 1. He was in his home 2. His home was not a place of business.  Was by word­of­mouth  Intrusion  There’s no expectation of privacy in public  There is no expectation of privacy in places where people gather (restaurants, airports)  Public places Galella v. Onassis­ She sued to keep galella away because he would jump out of bushes and take  pictures of her.  The argument on him is he is a sinner or a saint No privacy in public  Where photographers can take photos in public places, they can’t engage in harassment  California has passed an anti­paparazzi law to protect the children of celebrities.  Hidden recording devices  There are expectations of privacy in homes, but not in public places of business where people are invited in.  Its’s legal but it’s a matter of evidence? You had to show it’s ethical  Ethical guidelines for when to use hidden recording devices.  When the harm prevented by the info outweighs any harm caused by the deception When journalists involved have thought it through carefully Intrusion and the publication of information obtained illegally  Journalists are not held accountable for information obtained illegally by another party and  passed onto them.  Journalists are held accountable for information they have obtained illegally  Legislative Action  Children’s online privacy protection act Allows the FTC to regulate internet sites that collect personal info form users under the age of 13 Disclosure of Privacy Public records  Newsworthy and legitimate public interest  “The public disclosure of embarrassing private facts that are not newsworthy when such  disclosure would be highly offensive to a reasonable person.” Publicity to private facts It is illegal to publicize private information about a person if the matter:  Has publicity   Would be highly offensive to a reasonable person Private facts  The plaintiff must prove the information is indeed private  Information is not considered private if activity happens in public  A large segment f the public is already aware  The information is in public records  Naming a rape victim­ Florida Star v. BJF  Is the name part of a public document or proceeding? Most media outlets have internal policies preventing the publication of these names  Legitimate public concern  How much public interest or importance is there in the material How deeply does publication of these facts intrude into an individual’s privacy? 2 kinds of lawsuits arise about recounting the past: 1. A news story, book or TV documentary that simply recounts the past; a history  2. “Where they are now” stories; pushes beyond history When they can be told? 1. History­ these kind of cases are never successful; Press have a right to retell thses stories  2. “Where are they now” stories­ permissible as long as they are not designed to purposely  embarrass or humiliate the plaintiff.  False light Privacy  Its illegal to publicize material that places an individual in a false light if: 1. The false light in which the individual was place would be offensive to a reasonable  person and  2. The publisher of the material was at fault when publication was made Fictionalization  “References to real people in factious articles”  “Using disguised characters in fictional work that represents real people”  Time Inc. v. Hill  ­First false light case to reach Supreme Court  ­court use actual malice standard  ­public interest v.  Public figure Found in favor of Time Mag.  Distortion  ­ Arranging material to give a false impression  Embellishment  ­ The addition of false material to a story that places someone in a false light.  ­ Cantrell v. Forest City publishing co.  Mother wasn’t home­ only kids  Father died in bridge collops  Privacy torts  ­ Emotional distress  ­ Harsh satire  ­ Shocking news content and tactics 


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