Intelligence CONT.. PSYC 2010 - 001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Myrissa Webb on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Jennifer Daniels in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
David Wechsler developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) (1939) and later the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) (1955), an intelligence test for school-aged children, and the WIPSI )1967) for preschool-aged children Principles of Test Construction For a psychological test to be acceptable it must fulfill the following three criteria Standardization Standardizing a test involves administering the test ot a representative sample of future test takers in order to establish a basis for meaningful comparison Making sure the test is administered and scored the same way it is given each time Standardized test establish a normal distribution of scores on a tested population in a bell-shaped pattern called the normal curve Extremes of Intelligence. Two extremes: the intellectually disabled (IQ 70) and high intelligence (IQ 130). These groups are significantly different. Reliability A test is reliable when it yields consistent results Split-Half Reliability: Dividing the test into two equal haves and assessing how consistent the scores are. Test-Retest Reliability: Using the same test on two occasions to measure consistency. Inter-Rater Reliability: The scores will be consistent regardless of who administers it. Validity Reliability of a test does not ensure validity. Validity of a test refers to what the test is supposed to measure or predict. Content Validity: A measure represents all aspects of a given construct Predictive Validity: Trying to predict how well someone is going to do in something (ex. ACT predicting how well you will handle college) Discriminant Validity: Obtained when we measure two things that are thought to be dissimilar and our measures can discriminate between them Flynn Effect: In the past 60 years, intelligence scores have risen steadily by an average of 27 points. This phenomenon is known as the Flynn effect. Why? School is more important now; internet Biases in Intelligence Testing Race Age Socio-economic status Religion Education of parents Urban vs. Rural Primary Language How easy/hard to form culturally unbiased assessment of intelligence? Aging Phases Phase 1- Cross-Sectional Evidence Intelligence declined Mental decline part of aging process Phase 2-Longitudinal Evidence Followed same cohort Until late in life, intelligence is stable Phase 3 Steeper intelligence decline after 85 Intelligence is not a single trait Older people have slower neural processing Two types of Intelligence Crystalized Intelligence: Accumulated knowledge as reflected in vocab and analogies test (We tend to keep) Fluid Intelligence: ability to reason speedily and abstractly (Tends to decrease)