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Psychology 321

by: Kelsey Clow

Psychology 321 PSYC 321

Kelsey Clow
Truman State
GPA 3.0
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These notes will cover what is the on the 2nd test.
Bio Psychology
Dr. Fred Shaffer
Class Notes




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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Clow on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 321 at Truman State University taught by Dr. Fred Shaffer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Bio Psychology in Pscyhology at Truman State University.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
How would you classify a newly developed drug if it bound to dopamine’s receptor site without activating it?  Antagonist The dose at which a drug has a half-maximal response is termed the - ED50 If a newly developed drug is found to bind to serotonin receptors and activate them, the drug is called?  Agonist Which site shows a loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease - Substantia nigra What structure contains serotonergic nerve cell bodies - Raphe Nucleus The calming effect of alcohol on neurons is probably mediated by ?, which is one of alcohol’s breakdown products. - Allopregnanolone What drug is a serotonergic agonist and functions like an anxiolytic - Buspar Which of the following therapies would provide a substance abuser with a way of controlling drug use with the least effort? - A vaccine against the drug Drugs that are effective in reducing the symptoms of schizophrenia - Neuroleptics Where do noradrenergic neurons originate? - Locus coeruleus Where do serotonergic neurons originate? - Raphe nuclei The drug methadone is used to treat people who have become addicted to - Heroin Tolerance that can be effective by the environment. - Contingent The neuromodulator adenosine reduces catecholamine release through its action - Caffeine Antipsychotics called atypical neuroleptics block? - Serotonin receptors Change the functions of their bodies and brains (happening outside the body) - Exogenous Produced inside the body. This is called a neurotransmitter. - Exogenous Amine neurotransmitters include: 1. ACh, dopamine and serotonin Amino acid neurotransmitters include: - GABA and glutamate Peptide neurotransmitter include: - SHORT string of amino acids Soluble gases that diffuse between neurons to alter ongoing processes. - Gas neurotransmitter o Nitric oxide o Carbon monoxide Protein molecules embedded in the postsynaptic membrane that recognize the transmitter - Receptor A protein that changes its shape to open an ion channel - Ionotropic receptors o Fast A protein is altering chemical reactions within the target cells - Metabotropic Receptors o G-proteins Any substance that binds to a receptor is called - Ligand A ligand that imitates the normal effects of the transmitter on the receptor - Agonist A ligand that blocks it from being activated by another ligand is called - Antagonist A ligand that is less common but it revers the normal function of the receptor - Inverse agonist More than one neurotransmitter is given to presynaptic terminal is called - Co-release/ Co- localization A ligand that bind to the same part of the receptor complex that the endogenous transmitter normally would is called - Competitive ligands Referring to the cells that use ACh as their synaptic transmitter - Cholinergic Important clusters of cholinergic cells are found in the basal forebrain, including: - Medial septal nucleus, - Nucleus of the diagonal bands - And nucleus basalis o These cholinergic cells project into the hippocampus and amygdala and throughout the cerebral cortex. Widespread loss of cholinergic neurons is evident to - Alzheimer’s disease o Learning and memory Two families of ACh receptors in the peripheral and central nervous system include; - Nicotinic - Muscarinic Describe nicotinic - Ionotropic - Excitatory effect Muscles use ? ACh receptors, so antagonist such as curare, cause widespread of paralysis - Nicotinic Describe muscarinic - Metabotropic - They can be either excitatory or inhibitory Muscarinic ACh receptors are ? G-protein coupled Muscarinic receptors can be blocked by the drugs - Atropine - Scopolamine Two classes of neurotransmitters - Catecholamine - Indoleamines Neurotransmitters that derived from amino acids tyrosine are dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine - Catecholamine Neurotransmitters that derived from the amino acid tryptophan are melatonin and serotonin - Indoleamines The mesostriatal DA pathway plays a role in - Motor control - Significant loss of these neurons produces the movement for Parkinson’s disease Mesolimbocortical pathway also originates - Midbrain - Ventral tegmental area - Limbic systems - Cortex Mesolimbocortical pathway is important in - Reward and reinforcement - Especially by the dopamine D2 receptor subtype Two main clusters of neurons in the brainstem releasing norepinephrine include - Locus coeruleus - Lateral tegmental system Referring to systems using norepinephrine as a transmitter - Noradrenergic Cerebellum and spinal cord receives - Noradrenergic innervation Serotonin (5-HT) cell bodies are relatively few and are connected along the mind line of the - Raphe nuclei o Only about 200,000 of the 100 billion neurons of the human brain are serotonin Serotonin have been implicated in the control of; - Sleep states - Mood, - Sexual behavior - Anxiety Drugs that increase 5HT activity are - Antidepressants o Prozac The most common transmitters in the brain are - Amino acids Neurotransmitters that are important for excitatory - Glutamate - Aspartate Neurotransmitters that are important for inhibitory - GABA - Glycine Glutamatergic transmission employs what type of transmitter - AMPA - Kainite - NMDA o They are ionotropic NMDA-type glutamate receptors are active in - Learning and memory Metabotropic glutamate receptors act slowly because they work through - Second messenger Glutamate is associated with ?, a phenomenon in which neural injury like stroke or trauma provokes an excessive release of glutamate - Excitotoxicity GABAA receptors are - Ionotropic - Produce fast inhibitory postsynaptic potentials GABAB receptors are - Metabotropic receptors - Produce slow inhibitory postsynaptic potential GABAC receptors are - Ionotropic with a chloride channel - Found in the retina Peptides that can mimic opiate drugs like morphine - Opioid peptides A group of peptides that are found in the gut and spinal cord or brain include - Substance P - CCK - Beta- endorphin - Dynorphin Pituitary hormones release - Oxytocin - Vasopressin NO (nitric oxide) can serve as a - Retrograde transmitter Diffusing from the postsynaptic neuron back to the presynaptic neuron, where it stimulates changes in the synaptic efficacy is called - Retrograde transmitter - This can be involved in learning and memory The degree of chemical attraction between a ligand and a receptor is - Binding affinity - Neurotransmitters themselves are LOW affinity ligands The extent to which a drug activates a response when it binds to a receptor is - Efficacy o Agonists have HIGH efficacy o Antagonists have LOW efficacy A drug that, when bound to a receptor, has LESS effect than then endogenous ligand would - Partial agonist or partial antagonist **Greater does tend to produce greater effects** Tolerance in which the body’s metabolic systems and organs become increasingly effective at eliminating the drug before it has a change to affect the brain - Metabolic tolerance Tolerance the target tissue itself show altered sensitivity to the drug is known as - Functional tolerance o Important source of f.t. is the regulation and receptor proteins  Decreased responding to a drug after repeated exposures Agonist drug is a ? regulate - Down-regulate o Decrease the number of available receptors to which the drug can bind Antagonist drug is a ? regulate - Up-regulate o Increase the number of available receptors to which the drug can bind Tolerance of a drug often generalizes to other drugs belonging to the same chemical class this is known as - Cross tolerance General term that refers to factors that affect the movement of a drug into, through, and out of the body - Pharmacokinetics Block sodium channels and therefore action potentials to stop neural transmission in pain fibers this is called - Local anesthetics Presynaptic neurons often use ? to monitor how much transmitter they have released - Autorecpetors o Kind of a feedback system o False feedback- promoting the presynaptic cell to release more or less transmitter Adenosine acts as a - Neuromodulator It is normally co-released with primary transmitters to control synaptic activity by inhibiting transmitter release. - Neuromodulator By blocking adenosine, ? increases catecholamine release, resulting arousal - Coffee Alcohol up regulates the number of receptors for - GABA Antipsychotic drugs block ???? receptors - Dopamine D2 Curare blocks - Nicotinic ACh receptors LSD is an ? at some types of serotonin receptors - Agonist Antidepressants inhibits the reuptake for - Serotonin Thee chemical breakdown of a neurotransmitter into inactive metabolites - Degradation Agents that inhibit the enzyme AChE are called - Cholinesterase inhibitors- allow ACh to remain active at the synapse and alter the timing of synaptic transmission o They include pesticides and chemical weapons Producing bizarre visual experiences through strong stimulation of a subtype of serotonin receptor found in visual cortex. - LSD Antipsychotics drugs relieve the symptoms for - Schizophrenia Positive symptoms for schizophrenia include - Delusions - Hallucinations Good at relieving the symptoms of schizophrenia that a DOPAMINERGIC explanation of this disease became dominate - Typical neuroleptics A major class of ant schizophrenic drugs that share antagonist activity at D2 receptors - Typical neuroleptics Nondopaminergic actions especially the blockade of certain serotonin receptors - Atypical neuroleptics o Negative symptoms- social withdrawal and blunted emotional response Antidepressants relieve ? mood problems - Chronic Antidepressant that breaks down monoamine neurotransmitters at axon terminals thereby reducing transmitter activity. - Monamine oxidase (MAO) Increasing synaptic ? availabity appears to be a key activity of all antidepressants - MAO Act by increasing the synaptic accumulation of serotonin and norepinephrine - Tricyclic antidepressants A class of substances that are used to combat anxiety - Anxiolytics Anxiolytics belong to the general category of - Depressants- drugs that depress or reduce nervous system activity A class of antianxiety drugs that bind to sites on GABAa receptors - Benzodiazepine agonists Members of Benzodiazepine agonists include - Valium - Lorazepam Benzodiazepine binding site is - Orphan receptor- a receptor for which an endogenous ligand has not been conclusively identified A steroid deriverd from the hormone progesterone, acts on yet another site on the GABAa receptor - Allopregnanolone o Alcohol increases brain concentrations of allopregnanolone o This steroid may mediate some of the calming influence of alcohol. Serotonergic agonist is - Buspar- an effective anxiolytic that lacks the sedative effects of benzodiazepines. Superior frontal association cortex are the brain areas that are most affected by - Chronic alcohol. In the absence of clear cut alcoholism- periodic overconsumption of alcohol (bingeing) may cause brain damage. ? the major active substance in opium is a very effective painkiller (analgesic) that has brought relief from severe pain to many people - Morphine Opiates morphine, heroin, and codeine bind to specific receptors - Opioid receptors – receptor that responds to endogenous and or exogenous opiates Opioid receptors are found in - Locus coeruleus and in the periaqueductal gray- gray matter that surrounds the aqueduct in the brainstem Cannabinoid receptors are concentrated in the - Substantia nigra - Hippocampus - Cerebellar cortex - Cerebral cortex CB1 and CB2 are both - G protein coupled metabotropic receptors o CB1- found in the nervous system o CB2- found in the immune system An endogenous ligand of cannabinoid receptors, an analog of marijuana that is produced by the brain - Endocannabinoid o Can function as retrograde messenger An endogenous substance that binds the cannabinoid receptor molecule. - Anandamide Nicotine from cigarettes enters the blood and brain - More rapidly than does nicotine from other tobacco products Dependence for emergent drug effects that occur only when two drugs are taken simultaneously - Dual dependence A molecule that resembles the structure of the catecholamine transmitter and enhances their activity - Amphetamine A class of drugs that alter sensory perception and produce peculiar experiences - Hallucinogens o LSD- a hallucinogens drug Mescaline affects - Noradrenergic system - Serotonergic system LSD, mescaline and psilocybin act on - Serotonin receptor agonists or partial agonists at 5-HT2A receptors LSD resembles - Serotonin PCP also called angle dust is an ? agent that is also ? drug - Anesthetic and psychedelic A type of drug that produces a dreamlike state in which consciousness is partly separated from sensory inputs - Dissociative drug *PCP causes degeneration in the hippocampus and the cingulate gyrus* PCP molecules relative to - Ketamine- less potent NMDA antagonist that is used as a dissociative anesthetic drug Major actions of MDMA in the brain include - Increase in the release of serotonin - Stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors - Changing in the levels of dopamine and certain hormones - Releasing hormones are produced in the - Hypothalamus Based on what we know about meadow voles, which peptide hormone receptor would you expect to show decreased levels in promiscuous human males in comparison to monogamous human males - Vasopressin Neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus release ? into the bloodstream - Hormones Which of the following types of interaction is responsible for the effect of testosterone on the excitability of the brain - Endocrine to neural The adrenal medulla releases hormones in response to - Sympathetic nervous activity Melatonin is released almost exclusively - At night Urine formation is inhibited by - Vasopressi, - ADH - AVP Which hormone is responsible for the contractions of the uterus during childbirth - Oxytocin A cell that releases a hormone that affects the cell next to it is engaged in ? communication - Paracrine In general, steroid hormones from the peripheral organs ? the release of hormones from the pituitary through the process of ? feedback - Inhibit; negative ? hormones affect the secretion of other endocrine glands - Tropic The technique used for identifying the location of a hormone receptor using antibodies to the receptor is - Immunocytochemistry After determining normal estrogen levels within a specific brain region, which of the following would show that estrogen is being made by aromatase within that specific brain region - Infuse testosterone into the area Which of the following is NOT an anterior pituitary hormone? - GnRH Which of the following is an amine hormone? - Thyroid hormone After a meal, glucose from the food enters the bloodstream, causing insulin to be released from the - Pancreas Which of the following hormones does NOT originate in the hypothalamus - ACTH Which of the following statements with respect to oxytocin and vasopressin is false - They are secreted in response to hypothalamic releasing hormones Cushing’s syndrome has shown to be a result of - Long-term excess of glucocorticoids Which of the following is a mineralocorticoid? - Aldosterone The appropriate technique for measuring the concentration of a hormone in a sample of blood - Radioimmunoassay Normal growth of the body is stimulated not only by growth hormone but also by ?, which are released by the - Somatomedins; livers Which of the following hormones is secreted particularly during stage 3 sleep - Growth hormone The essential feature of tropic hormones is that they - Affect the secretion of other endocrine glands Glucocorticoids can have a potent inhibitory action on - Inflammation Cushing’s syndrome is characterized by elevated levels of - Cortisol The hormone epinephrine is secreted from the - Medulla of the adrenal glands Children with psychosocial dwarfism often show an almost complete lack of - Growth hormone Neuronal and hormonal communication both involve - Specialized receptor molecules When the ? cells of the pancreas secrete glucagon, blood levels of glucose are ? - Alpha; increased The steroid hormones cortisol and corticosterone are released by the ? in response to the hormone ? - Adrenals; ACTH Peptide hormones typically affect a cell by - Binding with transmembrane receptors Hormones vasopressin and oxytocin are released from the - Posterior pituitary One hormone that has been implicated in the formation of social bonds, including monogamy is - Vasopressin Steroid hormones ultimately exert their effect by - Binding to intracellular receptors and then altering gene expression Glands that secrete their hormones into the bloodstream and act at distant sites are - Endocrine Certain manipulations or hormonal changes can cause the number of receptors for a particular hormone to increase. The increase is - Up regulation Surgical removal of adrenal gland would result in ? levels of ? - Increased and ACTH Peptides such as leucotrins and bradykinins are just two of hundreds of similar substances that are released locally and act locally. Such products are called - Paracrine Which of the hormones does NOT originate in the anterior pituitary - TRH Which of the following statements is NOT true with respect to oxytocin and vasopressin - They are secreted in response to hypothalamic releasing hormones If a cell releases a chemical that affects only itself, the hormone is called - Autocrine Cells located in the ? synthesize FSH, ACTH, and TSH which then act on ? - Anterior pituitary; other glands in the body Releasing hormones are produced in the ? and control secretion by cells in the ? - Hypothalamus; anterior pituitary Although under hypothalamic control through a portal system, the gland manufactures its hormones from specialized cells in its lining - Anterior pituitary In the pancreas, the ? cells produce? - Beta ; insulin Melatonin is released from the? - Pineal gland The anxiolytic drug valium belongs to the class of drugs known as - Benzodiazepines Which of the following types of interactions is responsible for the effect of testosterone on the excitability of the brain - Endocrine to neural ? hormones affect the secretion of other endocrine glands - Tropic Which of the following structures does NOT contain cholinergic nerve cells bodies and projections - Raphe nucleus Major site of origin of projections using neurotransmitter dopamine - Substantia nigra A cell that releases a hormone that affects the cell next to it is engaged in ? communication - Paracrine Which of the following drugs is a serotonergic agonist and functions like an anxiolytic - Buspar A chemiacal secreted by one group of cells and carried through the bloodstream to other parts of the body, where they act on specific target tissues to produce specific physiological effects - Hormones Many hormones are produced by ? because they are release their hormones inside the body - Endocrine glands Glands which use ducts to secrete fluid outside the body - Exocrine gland Plants does not have ? but use chemical signals that are considered to be hormones - Endocrine glands Tests make and release - Testosterone Chemical signal is a hormone released into the bloodstream to selectively affect distant target organs - Endocrine communication The released chemical signal diffuses across the synaptic cleft and causes a change in the postsynaptic communication - Synaptic communication A released chemical that acts on the releasing cell itself and thereby affects its own activity - Autocrine communication The released chemical signal diffuses to nearby target cells - Paracrine communication o The strongest impact is on the nearest cells Are released into the outside environment to affect other individuals of the SAME species - Pheromones Chemical signal are released by members of one species to affect the behavior of individuals of ANOTHER species - Allomone communication Hormones frequently act in - Gradual fashion When hormones alter behavior, they tend to act by changing the - Intensity - Probability of evoked behaviors Both quantities and the types of hormones released are influenced by - Environmental factors The relationship between behavior and hormones is - Reciprocal- hormones change behaviors and behaviors change hormones Hormones are produced in ? amounts and often are secreted in ? - Small; bursts Secretion pattern is sometimes crucial for the small amounts of hormone to be effective - Pulsatile Hormone systems in the brain is controlled by - Circadian clock ? cells are crucial for brain control of endocrine glands - Neuroendocrine Some ? are used both as hormones by endocrine glands and as neuropeptides in the brain - Peptides Neural messages are - Are rapid and are measured in milliseconds Hormonal messages are - Slower and are measured in seconds and minutes The reactivity of cells to specific transmitters acting more slowly and having longer lasting effects than neurotransmitters have - Neuromodulars o Blend to neurotransmitters and hormone Three categories of hormones - Peptide hormones - Amine hormones - Steroid hormones Composed of a string of amino acids (short string of amino acids) - Peptide hormones Smaller and simpler, consisting of a modified version of a SINGLE amino acid - Amine hormones Derivatives of cholesterol, sharing its structure of four rings of carbon atoms - Steroid hormones Steroids dissolve readily in ? so they easily pass through membranes - Lipids Hormones exert these far-reaching effects by 1. Promoting the proliferation, growth, and differentiation 2. Modulating cell activity During adolescence, sex hormones cause secondary sexual characteristics to appear: - Breasts and broadening of the hips in women, facial hair, and Adam’s apple in men Protein hormone receptors are found in the - Cell membrane What regulates the metabolic activity of most of the cells in the human body - Thyroid hormone - Insulin What hormone promotes the secretion of sex hormones by the tests and ovaries - Luteinizing hormone- hormone from the anterior pituitary gland Peptide and amino hormones bind to specific receptors that are usually found - Found on the surface of target cell membranes Steroid hormones easily pass through cell membranes, so they are generally bind to specific receptor proteins located - Inside the cell When a hormone binds to the extracellular portion of the receptor, - The receptor molecule changes it overall shape Second-messenger systems are activated by - Metabotropic receptors in neurons Second messenger known as ? transmits the messages of many of the peptide and amine hormones - Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (Cyclic AMP or Camp) A second messenger activated in target cells in response to synaptic or hormonal stimulation - Cyclic guanosine monophosphate and Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Other wide-spread second-messenger compounds include - Cyclic GMP or cGMP - Phosphoinositide A common class of second messenger compounds in postsynaptic cells - Phosphoinositide ACTH interacts with receptors on the membrane of cells in the ? thereby increasing their long term capacity to produce ? - Adrenal cells; hormones A substance that binds to recognition sites on DNA and alters the rate of expression of particular genes - Transcription factor o The resulting steroid-receptor complex binds to specific regions of the DNA in the nucleus of the cell. The brain contains what type of receptor isoform - Estrogen receptor B - Estrogen receptor a Proteins that affect the cell’s response when a steroid hormone binds its receptor - Steroid receptor cofactors An effect of a steroid hormone that is not mediated by direct changes in gene expression - Nongenomic effect An individual in which a particular gene has been disabled by an experimenter - Knockout organism A histological technique that shows the distribution of radioactive chemicals in tissues - Autoradiography A method for detecting particular RNA transcripts in tissue - In situ hybridization What is the simpliest type of negative feedback - An endocrine gland releases a hormone that not only acts on a target but also feeds back in an autocrine fashion to inhibit further hormone secretion In a negative feedback system; output of the hormone feeds back to inhibit the drive for more of that same hormone Insulin causes ? to enter the muscle and fat cells - Glucose All of the pituitary hormones are called - Tropic hormones ? controls the pituitary release of tropic hormones - Releasing hormones The brain’s releasing hormones affect ? which affect the release of ? - Pituitary’s tropic hormones; endocrine gland Pituitary comes from - Mucus Two parts of the pituitary gland is - Anterior pit. - Posterior pit. The pit. Is connected to the hypothalamus by a thin piece of tissue called - Pit. Stalk o Stalk is filled with many axons and blood vessels o Axons extend to the post. Pit. o Blood vessels carry information to the anti. Pit. The post. Pit. Gland secrets two hormones - Oxytocin (milk letdown) and vasopressin (water conservation) Neurons in the ? and ? of the hypothalamus synthesize these two hormones - Supraoptic nuclei - Paraventriclar nuclei ? hormone is involved with the reproductive and parental behavior - Oxytocin ? hormone inhibits the formation of urine - Vasopressin ? and ? hormones serve as neurotransmitters from hypothalamic cells projecting widely through the nervous system - Oxytocin - Vasopressin The neurons that synthesize the different releasing hormones are - Neuroendocrine cells in the hypothalamus What produces the oxytocin or vasopressin in the hypothalamus - Neuroendocrine cell bodies A hypothalamic nucleus containing neuroendocrine cells that send axons to the posterior pit. To release oxytocin or vasopressin - Supraoptic nucleus A nucleus of the hypothalamus implicated in the release of oxytocin and vasopressin, and in the control of feeding and other behaviors - Paraventricular nucleus Tropic hormones include - Prolactin - FSH AND LH - TRH - ACTH - Growth hormone What contains an elaborate profusion of blood vessels that form the hypophyseal portal system - Median eminence The hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells that synthesize the releasing hormones are themselves subject two kinds of influences. - Circulating messages- and blood sugar and products of the immune system - Synaptic inputs- either excitatory or inhibitory from many other brain regions Anterior Pituitary hormones include  ACTH  TSH  FSH  LH  Prolactin  Growth Hormone Controls the production and releases of hormones of the adrenal cortex - ACTH Increases the release of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland - TSH Two of the anterior pituitary that regulate the function of the adrenal cortex and the thyroid gland - ACTH - TSH Two of the anterior pituitary hormones that influence the gonads - FSH - LH Actions on the ovary, where it stimulates the growth and maturation of egg containing follicles and the secretion of estrogens from the follicles - FSH Two of the anterior pituitary hormones that control milk production and body growth - Prolactin - Growth Hormone The stomach secretes a hormone called - Ghrelin Reduced stature caused by stress early in life that inhibits growth - Psychosocial dwarfism A group of proteins released from the liver in response to growth hormone that aid body growth and maintenance - Somatomedins Major source of progesterone - Corpora lutea 80% of the gland, the ? is composed of distinct layers of cells, each producing different steroid hormones - Adrenal cortex The inner core of the adrenal gland, which secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine - Adrenal cortex Adrenal cortex produces and secretes variety of steroid hormones, collectively called - Adrenocorticoids Effects on minerals like sodium and potassium - MineralocorticoidS A mineralocorticoids hormone secrets by the adrenal cortex that includes the kidneys to conserve sodium ions - Aldosterone A chief hormone secreted by the human adrenal cortex - Androstenedione Thyroid hormones regulate - Growth - Metabolism The most important naturally occurring estrogen is - 17B estradiol The ovary produces two major classes of steroid hormones - Progestins - Estrogen Human ovarian are produced in Cycles for 4 weeks What cells are in the testes - Sertoli cells o Produce sperm - Leydig cells o Produce testosterone Testosterone and other males hormones are known as - Androgens What plays an important role in governing the onset of puberty - Kisspeptin


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