HIST 201 Chapter 5 Reading Notes
HIST 201 Chapter 5 Reading Notes History 202
Popular in United states history since 1865
Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elly Notetaker on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 202 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Gregory Domber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see United states history since 1865 in History at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Chapter 5 Reading Notes: Battling for Souls, Minds, and the Heart of North America Immigrants and Indians The Arrival of Immigrants in Chains Population of British North America grew immensely o Immigrants accounted for 40% of that growth o Most people were immigrants or first-generation colonists Most who came to North American between 1730-1775 arrived in chains o Majority were African slaves o Entered through South Carolina or Virginia Demand for enslaved labor plummeted during the 1740s due to war but picked up again in 1760s Number of slaves in northern British colonies increased sharply Slavery in the northern colonies differed from slavery in the south o Northern slaves lived near cities o Most enslaved northern were men and lived with at most one other slave, making it harder to establish families or a culture o Black New Englanders, free and enslaved, staged an annual Election Day to choose a “king” or “governor” Growth of slavery in the north was owed partly to colonists’ greater participation in the Atlantic slave trade o Rhode Island merchants grew to control 70% of British colonial slave trade British and Irish convicts also came to North America against their will after 1730 o Made up the majority of English immigrants to North America in 1700s o Population growth, rising crimes, and more severe laws in England increased the number of convicts sent 90% of convicts did their time in the Chesapeake where they worked o They were also cheap; less than an enslaved African male o But risky because they tended to run away Benjamin Franklin campaigned against the transportation of convicts to the colonies The Impact of Irish and German Immigration 1730-1775 Ireland was the second largest source of immigration Most were young, single, male indentured servants 1763-Revolution families from Ulster (Northern Ireland) dominated Irish immigration o Promise of better opportunities and land Most landed in Philadelphia or Delaware where demand for indentured servants was high 1750 Irish merchants exported wheat and flour to Ireland and imported linens and servants Ulsterites or Scots Irish who paid their own way went West immediately Irish encountered thousands of Germans Absolutist princes, high taxes, labor, and scarcity of land pushed Germans to North America Most Germans landed in Philadelphia o Before 1750s mostly families o After 1750s single men who became “redemptioners” or indentured servants who paid for their passage by selling their services when landed Influx of Germans alarmed colonists, particularly Franklin o Threatened to make Pennsylvania a colony of “aliens” Plantation Act of 1740 allowed non-Catholics who resided for at least 7 years, receive communion in a Protestant church, swore allegiance to George II, and paid 2 shillings to become citizens Heavy immigration accelerated the expansion of British North America and sparked debates on who could be considered British and who belonged in colonies Indian Displacement and the Rise of Sioux, Osage, and Comanche European immigration meant exile for Indians in east Diffusion of horses and guns enabled the rise of new Indian powers on the Great Plains Few Indians suffered more displacement by immigrants than the Delawares 1736 treaty between Iroquois and Pennsylvania gave Iroquois the right to speak for all Indians in the who lived between them and Philadelphia Pennsylvanians tricked Delaware leaders into the “Walking Purchase” 1760 nearly all Plains people had horses and firearms o Became more nomadic and focused on hunting bison o Meant more work for women and captives Dispersal of horses and gun encouraged more violence and led to rise of 3 powers o Newest of which was the Sioux Sioux entered Great Plains from Minnesota to hunt beaver to trade with French o Headed west and displaced less well-armed people o Mobility of horses enabled them to dodge smallpox epidemics o 1804 Sioux dominated the northern Great Plains Osage Indians became the main power on the east-central Plains o Location enabled Osages to deny Indian people access to trade goods from French o French colonists in Illinois had to maintain good relations The Comanches were the most powerful group of Indians to emerge in North America in 1700s o Played French and Spanish against each other o 1750s dominated much of Oklahoma and Texas Slave Resistance and the Creation of Georgia 1733 group of English entrepreneurs led by James Oglethorpe founded Georgia Hoped to offer sanctuary to Europe’s persecuted Protestants and free British debtors from prison and redeem them through the hard work of establishing a new colony Aspired to convert Indians Envisioned Georgia as a buffer between South Carolina, slave state, and Florida Oglethorpe believed that slavery corrupted whites by encouraging laziness o Outlawed slavery in 1735 1739 offers of sanctuary in Florida sparked the Stono Rebellion in South Carolina o Largest and bloodiest slave revolt o Group of slaves were from Kongo and had military experience Stono Rebellion was a part of slave revolts between 1733-1741 Minds, Souls, and Wallets North Americans Engage the Enlightenment 1730 colonists became fully engaged in the ideas of the Enlightenment o Attracted intellectuals, celebrated the use of reason, knowledge, and tried to improve humanity o Tried to determine an universal system of laws that governed nature Expansion of the newspaper industry kept colonists informed on distant developments o Colonists began to accept newspapers as legitimate vehicles for political dissent Creation of colonial colleges facilitated the exchange of ideas o The 5 still remain today: University of Pennsylvania, Columbia, Princeton, Rutgers, and Brown o Established to train ministers but all offered a secular curriculum o Trained a growing number of American-born doctors, lawyers, and merchants Libraries brought ideas swirling about the Atlantic world to colonies 1731 Franklin and others formed the Library Company of Philadelphia which lent books to its members, offered self-improvement, and advice Histories filled library shelves o Bound people to one another Novels were the most popular types of books borrowed from libraries o Encouraged readers to think of themselves as part of an Anglo- Atlantic world o Early novels targeted an urban female audience More British North Americans became ambitious scientists Benjamin Franklin was the 18 century most famous American born person in Europe because of his scientific research o Focused on electricity and invited the lightening rod European scientists generally saw their American peers as lesser o Exception of Ben Franklin American Philosophical Society (APS) with Franklin as president Becoming a Consumer Society Almost everyone bought British goods that filled the shops British and Atlantic networks offered colonists an unprecedented number and variety of goods Expanding choices as consumers led colonists to redefine their relationships to one another and to the British empire Drinking tie, sign of refinement, helped usher the consumer revolution Decrease influence of planter elites who had long controlled their access to Atlantic markets Colonial merchants spurred demand by extending credit to customers Wholesale merchants imported goods and shipped many to retailers in countryside The retailers bought on credit and sold the goods on credit to customers, who paid their debts with what they made, grew, or raised Marketing via newspapers stimulated sales 1750s saw a huge increase in the number of advertisements Ads in newspapers indict that British North America was becoming one interconnected market o Colonists could buy the same goods almost anywhere o Studies reveal that colonists in the same socioeconomic bracket bought the same goods wherever they lived African Americans also bought imports o Enslaved men often sold their time or expertise to white men o Task system: assigned enslaved adults a daily or weekly work quota o Once they met it they could tend to their own gardens Slaves had unequal opportunities to earn income o Those with marketable skills or lived near a city had an advantage o Slaves in the gang system had less than those in the task system South Carolina authorities worried about the role that slaves, especially women, played in the public markets Anxiety about slaves’ economic activities was a part of a larger discussion in which wealthier colonists, mostly men, insisted that consumerism led to a moral and social decline o The poor, women, and youth no longer knew their place Women took a disproportionate blame for ills of consumer revolution England began to seek more control over colonial economy o Enacted tighter regulations Revivals and the Rise of Evangelical Christianity Church membership grew rapidly between 1730-1776 Preachers brought evangelical Christianity to North America Expressions of beliefs opened deep divisions within colonial Christianity Pietism: celebrated the exchange of ideas and techniques across ethnic, national, and denominational lines and promotion the conversion of Christianity of Africans and Indians Moravians sought to create closed, economically autonomous, sex- segregated communities in which Christian rituals infused daily lives Jonathan Edwards a Massachusetts minister had a leading role in the transatlantic awakening o Sermons sparked a revival, outpouring of religious enthusiasm o Prompted George Whitefield an Anglican pastor to come Public interest was so great because revivalists generated enormous controversy Moravians drew fire because they disobeyed gender norms o Challenged the model of the male-dominated family o Feminine characteristics to Christ Other revivalists also empowered women Ideals of the awakening promoted egalitarianism and skepticism toward established authority o Challenged notion of a hierarchical, official, taxpayer-supported religion o Efforts shaped James Madison’s and Thomas Jefferson’s views concerning the separation of church and state Evangelicals helped reconceive the relationship of the individual to the community African, African American, and Indian Awakenings Many blacks and Indians proved receptive to evangelical Protestantism because preachers reached out to them with messages they found attractive Moravians were first to target Africans for conversion Preached racial equality but submission to masters Considered African spiritual equals Whitefield convinced South Carolina planter to build a school for black students Number of factors encouraged slaves and free blacks to convert to Christianity o Sermons lured black audiences o Blacks could preach and become leaders o Similarities between evangelical and African rituals and worldviews Baptist preachers from New England preached redemption for all, welcomed blacks, and at first allowed women to serve as deaconesses Indians in eastern North America experienced two different forms of religious awakening o One mostly to the work of the colonists and missionaries o Others experienced a religious awakening in which converts rejected Europeans and their ways North America and the French and Indian War, 1754-1763 The Struggle for the Ohio Valley 1740s delicate balance of power between French and British, Iroquois, and Indians of Great Lakes kept peace in Ohio Valley Immigration pushed Delawares and Shawnees into the Ohio Valley 1745 Virginia granted over 300,000 acres of land to the Ohio Company of Virginia French officials responded by staking their claim to the Ohio Valley British control of the region would cut French territory by half Asserted influence by distributing goods to recruit Indian allies to attack Indians with British ties Also built a chain of forts to halt British encroachment Provoked panic among British Albany Congress did little to unite colonial government George Washington commanded 200 men to build Fort Necessity o He was a poor diplomat to Indians o French and Indian forces overran the fort o Caused a war The War in North America and in Europe British soldiers under command of Edward Braddock accompanied by Washington Battle at the Monongahela underscored Indian’s importance to French 1758 3 developments turned the tide to British favor o 1. French lost most of their allies o William Pitt authorized payments to enable them to continue fighting o Tens of thousands of colonists took up arms British military advantage arose from differences in how the English and French had colonized North America o British: high immigration, high birthrates, and intensive resettlement of Indians o French: minimal immigration, extensive territorial claims could not match the British Once Indians abandoned the war it was only a matter of time until English victory Britain Gains Control of Eastern North America French and Indian war opened new divisions Treaty of Paris transformed eastern North America’s political geography New European divisions changed little for Indians in the west Indians between the Mississippi and Appalachians had a new challenge o Could no longer play European rivals against each other o Colonists wanted their land Had 2 choices o 1. Accept British rule and lose their land o 2. Take up arms Many opted to fight War elevated tensions between colonists and the empire they fought for o Demonstrated the need for more control over colonial affairs o Offered an unsettling view of British Empire – wartime experiences War also drew divisions among colonists o Quakers withdrew from Pennsylvania to protest decision to support war Some Quaker reforms such as John Woolman and Anthony Benezet targeted slavery War displaced tens of thousands of people
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