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Notes for Week Six of Ling 253

by: Kelsey Mulford

Notes for Week Six of Ling 253 LING253

Marketplace > University of Delaware > LING253 > Notes for Week Six of Ling 253
Kelsey Mulford

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About this Document

We talked about sound waves and reading spectrograms.
Laboratory Phonetics
Thomas Parrell
Class Notes
Spectrograms, Linguistics, Sound
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Mulford on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING253 at University of Delaware taught by Thomas Parrell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
                             Notes for Week 6 of LING 253         Sound fluctuates through air which eventually hit the eardrum and are then  interpreted as a sensation of sound. It is a travelling pressure fluctuation. The air  molecules do not travel that much (just up and down). What really moves is the  wave itself. In speech, the sound source is the vocal folds. The pressure moves  down the line of air molecules to produce areas of compression and rarefaction  (think of a spring). High pressure is equal to compression and low pressure is equal to rarefaction. The simplest wave forms look like sine waves The amplitude is how high or low a wave can go (the maximum vertical  displacement, the height above the zero line). The period is the length of time it takes to complete one wave. The frequency is the number of cycles per second. The higher the frequency, the  higher the pitch. The frequency is the inverse of the period; it is the number of  periods in one second. Some waves could have an amplitude but no period of frequency. Most waves are complex and are the sum of multiple sine waves of varying  frequencies, amplitudes, and phases.  Fourier synthesis: sine waves can be added to generate complex waves Speech waves change over time. We can analyze each of the individual sections of  speech as if they were their own individual complex waves. Quasi­periodic waves in speech that closely approximate a perfect complex  periodic wave. The Power Spectra plots lines that are equivalent to their waveforms. They show  which frequencies have higher and lower amplitudes. A spectrograph shows how successive spectrums from one signal change over  time. It has three dimensions, as opposed to a waveform or power spectra which  only have two dimensions. A darker shade means that more energy in  concentrated. Wide­band: high temporal accuracy, poor frequency Low­band: low temporal accuracy, better frequency Review: A waveform is pressure changes over time, and a spectrogram is the amplitude  changes at certain pressure over time The speech source is just a complex wave. This is why speech is fundamentally a  complex wave. Speech is regular but not a periodic wave. Th power spectra of  speech is a little complex and has many parts to it. The source is relatively  invariant and has particularly high frequencies and low frequencies in certain  areas. There is also some amplitude at a really broad range of frequencies.  Frequencies near a resonance are enhanced, and frequencies that are not near the  resonant frequencies get dampened or lowered.


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