Identity Notes GEOG140
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tran on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG140 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Rebecca Buller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Geography in Geography at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Chapter 5 Identity: Race, Ethnicity, Gender, & Sexuality Your Varying Identities What is your identity at the… o Individual scale? o Local scale? o Regional scale? o National scale? o Global scale? I. Identity Define: how people see themselves @ different scales a. People construct their own identities through experiences, emotions, connections, and rejections b. Fluid, constantly changing, shifting, becoming c. Place is part of our identity i. People have different identities @ various scales ii. When people make places they do so in the context of surrounding social relationships d. Identifying against is one of the most powerful ways to construct an identity i. Define: defining how the other and then defining ourselves as ‘not that’ 1. Ex: Europeans defined people in Asia as ‘mystical’ others, in Africa & America as ‘mystical’ and ‘savage’ others II. Race Define: A categorization of humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics a. Biological differences are simply different combinations of physical attributes in the human population i. Some argue that the differences likely result from a long history of adaption to different environments ii. Skin color is not a reliable indicator of genetic closeness b. Is a constructed identity i. Categories are social and political constructions 1. Based on ideas that some biological differences are more important than others c. Racial distinctions today are drawn from categories of skin color that are rooted in the cultural history, power relationships, and politics of a place over the past few centuries i. People construct racial categories to justify power, economic exploitation, and cultural oppression Chapter 5 1. Ex: many societies’ modern assumptions about race grew out of the period of European exploration & colonialism d. Race is often assigned, not chosen i. In the U.S., racial categories are typically imposed on people through 1. Residential segregation: the degree to which two or more groups live separately from one another, in different parts of the urban environment 2. Racialized divisions of labor 3. Racial categories defined by governments Looked @map of segregations of race (Milwaukee, WI ) hispanic, African american, asians= highest segregation of race III. Ethnicity Define (1): an affiliation or identity within a group bound by common ancestry & culture Define (2): can also mean a small, cohesive, culturally linked group of people who stand apart from the surrounding culture, often as a result from migration a. Constructed identity that is tied to a place i. Comes from idea that people are closely bounded, even related , in a place over time b. Complex concept that changes across scales, places, and times c. Frequently evident in cultural landscape Ex: Little Sweden, Kansas i. Reading the cultural landscape can reveal how power relationships factor into 1. The ways ethnicities are constructed, revised, and solidified 2. Where ethnic groups live 3. Who is subjugating whom d. Changes in Ethnic Space Ex: Mexicali’s China town 1. Center of Chinese ethnicity in the Mexicali Valley throughout much of the 20 century 2. Chinese were prominent in the social and economic life of the city 3. Few Chinese residents today 4. Yet continues to play an important symbolic and functional role for individuals Chinese ancestry Chapter 5 Ex: food geography :Sharks Fin Tacos & Barbecued Chow Mein What can you do with geography? Video; sponsored by earth.google - Talked about being an explorer= geographer - Work on research expeditions, hurricane/natural disasters, 2016 May Graduates of Geography: Buller showed us twitter of 2016 graduated students who have interests in geography and other subjects - student: Geography & computer science = gis - student: graduate school in research - student: studied several majors looked @ AAG salary & trends of jobs in geography…will be posted on blackboard watched Reel Injun trailer…a documentary we’d watch if we had time about identity and Native Americans portrayed in film ex: 1992 Los Angeles riots (-tension between different ethnic groups - rioted on how race impacted job opportunities and other resources to certain groups) 1. concluded: researchers saw ethnic conflicts are rooted in perceptions of distinctiveness based on differences in economics, power, language, religion, lifestyle, or historical experience 2. changing ethnic groups and cultural landscapes in South Central Los Angeles a. 1970: over 90% African American b. 1990: half African American, half Hispanic, & small percentage of others (ex; Koreans) 3. Growing despair& frustration of different ethnic groups competing for a decreasing number of jobs in an environment of declining housing conditions and scarce public resources Showed map of The Changing Ethnic composition of South Central LA IV. Gender(NOT THE SAME AS SEX) Define: social differences between men and women, rather than the anatomical, biological differences between the sexes a. “A culture’s assumptions about the differences between men and women; their ‘characters’ the roles they play in society, what they represent”- Domosh and Seager b. Culturally constructed c. Notions of differences vary greatly over time and space i. Different roles each gender plays d. Concept of ‘no need’ for masculine studies i. Feminists studies are present now, gender studies lean towards feminism e. How to describe some person: Capabilities vs personality/attractiveness i. Ex: Carly Forina’s “beautiful face” lead prosecutor Marcia Clark’s hair Chapter 5 1. Shows that people care about attractiveness rather than capabilities ii. Ex: “Dr.” vs “Mrs.” 1. Showed us a flow chart of “What Should I call my professor?” iii. Ex: “women are teachers, men are professors” iv. Ex: Northwestern study 1. Analyzed different vocab terms people used to address their professors (male and female) f. Gendered: in terms of a place, whether the place is designed for or claimed by women or men i. Divisions of labor one of the clearest ways in which societies are gendered 1. Ex: what spaces on campus are gendered? Bathrooms, dorms, lockers, Rec workout areas (weights commonly for men and aerobics commonly for women) 2. Ex: jobs sectored out (stay-at-home-dads?) V. Sexuality a. Culturally constructed b. Most social sciences are written in a heteronormative style i. Define: Viewpoint of researchers that the default subject of their studies is a white, heterosexual, male c. Local cultures, global culture, politics affect sexual identities and expectations d. Scholarship (academic point of view) i. Early studies focused on identity clusters 1. People who shared similar identities who lived together and a. How they created their spaces b. What problems they had 2. Newer studies see gay and lesbian neighborhoods as “extending the norm, not transgressing or challenging it” 3. Queer theory: theory that highlights the contextual nature of opposition to and focuses on the political engagement of “queers” with the heteronomative
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