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bio chapter3

by: Neha simon

bio chapter3 70855

Neha simon

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protein, carbs and lipids
cell structure and function
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Neha simon on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 70855 at George Mason University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see cell structure and function in Science at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
3.1 What kind of molecules characterizes living things? A. Living organisms are carbon based.  ­ Proteins: are formed form amino acids  ­ Carbohydrates: sugar monomers are linked to form polysaccharides.  ­ Nucleic acids: are formed from four kinds of nucleotide monomers.  ­ Lipids: forms structure, but non­covalent forces maintain interactions  between lipid monomers.  ­ Macromolecules: polymers with molecular weights> 1,000.  B. Isomers:  Molecules with the same chemical formula, but atoms are  arranged differently  ­ Cis­trans isomers: different orientation around a double bond.  ­ Optical isomers: when a carbon atom has four different atoms or groups  attached to it.  o Allows 2 different ways of making the attachments.  o Optical isomers result from adymmetrical carbons  Asymmetrical carbon: carbon that doesn’t move and can be  rearranged.  C. Polymers are formed in condensation reactions.  1. Monomers are joined by covalent bonds.  2. A water molecule is removed: called dehydration.  i. H2O is pulled out  3. Polymers are broken down in using water: Hydrolysis i. H2O is added.  D. Functions of protein.  1. Enzymes: speed up the rates of the reaction. 2. Structural proteins: provide physical stability and movement  3. Defensive protein: makes up our immune systems.  4. Signaling proteins: Helps trigger reactions.  5. Receptor proteins: receive and respond to chemical signals  6. Membrane transporters: regulate passage in and out of the cell.  a. Proteins: are polymers of 20 different amino acids.  b. Polypeptide chain:  c. Amino acids: has carboxyl and amino groups; function as acid and  base.  ­ R is a side chain.  d. Side chains (R groups): have a functional group.  i. Can be grouped based on the side chains.  ii. Hydrophilic amino acids attract ions od opposite charges.  3.2 What are the chemical structure and functions of protiens?  A. Protein structure can change.  ­ Binding to another molecule causes a protein to change shapes.  ­ Addition of a chem group to an amino acid changes its location. B. Proteins can sometimes bind to the wrong molecules after denaturation  or when it’s newly made.  ­ Chaperones: protiens that help prevent this.  1. Denatured protein goes into the chaperone, which isolates the  protein and gives it a chance to fold properly  3.3 structure and function of carbs.   A. Monosaccharaides: simple sugars   Has pentose or hexoses scarrides.   Difference between ribose and deoxyribose is that there is no  oxygen is position 2 of deoxyribose.  i. Ribose and deoxyribose are not isomers.  B. Disaccharides: 2 simple sugars linked by covalent bond C. Oligosaccharides: in between.  May include other functional groups.   Covalently bonded to protiens and lipids on cell sufaces and act  as reconition signals.   Human blood get their specifitity from oligosaccharide chain.   D. Polysaccharides: giant polymers of monosaccharides.   Starch: storage form of glucose in plants.   Glycogen: storage of gluose in plants.  E. All cells use glucose as an energy.   Exists as a straight chain or a ring.   Glucose is a aldehyde.   In the ring if the OH is in the bottom it’s the alpha orientation and  if OH is at the top it’s the beta orientation.  3.4 lipids.  A. Lipids: nonpolar hydrocarbons, insoluble in water.  a. Not a polymer.  B. Functions of lipids… a. Fats and oils store energy  i. Triglycerides: three fatty acids plus glycerol. ii. Ester linkage:  iii. b. Phospholipids: structural role in cell membranes.  i. Fatty acids bound to glycerol, a phosphate group replaces a  fatty acid.   c. Carotenoids and chlorophylls: capture light energy in plants.  i. Is light absorbing pigments, makes vitamin A.  d. Steroids and modified fatty acids: hormones ad vitamins.  i. Multiple rings share carbons.  ii. Cholesterol is an example a steroid.  iii. Is important in membranes.  iv. Cholesterol is a precursor to estrogen and testosterone.  e. Vitamins: small molecules not synthesized by body.  f. Animal fat used for insulation.  i. Also repels water.  g. Saturated fatty acid: no double bonds between carbons.  i. Saturated with H atoms, ecery carbon has an H  h. Unsaturated: the carbon is double bonded.  i. Fatty acids are amphipathic: they have 2 functional groups.       


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