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Physical Geography Chapter 14 Notes

by: Ashley Trecartin

Physical Geography Chapter 14 Notes GEOG 110

Marketplace > Southwestern Michigan College > Science > GEOG 110 > Physical Geography Chapter 14 Notes
Ashley Trecartin

GPA 3.43

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The book notes for chapter 14
Physical Geography
Mr. Thomas
Class Notes
physcial, geography, Tectonic, volcanic, Processes, landforms
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Trecartin on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 110 at Southwestern Michigan College taught by Mr. Thomas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Physical Geography in Science at Southwestern Michigan College.


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Date Created: 10/06/16
Chapter 14: Tectonic and Volcanic Processes and Landforms I. Landforms and Geomorphology A. A fundamental characteristic of all landforms and landscapes is the amount of  relief they have, which is the elevation between the highest and lowest points  within a specific area and a particular surface feature.  B. Geomorphic processes that come from inside Earth are called endogenic  processes and they tend to increase the amount of surface relief. Exogenic  processes are the ones that happen outside of the surface and the tend to decrease  the relief.  C. The exogenic processes have different ways to break down rocks that are  collectively known as weathering, they also remove and transport the broken  down rocks. These different means are called erosion—breaking down,  transportation—removing and transporting, and depositim—leaving somewhere  else.  D. These three processes use gravity or with the help of a geomorphic agent, which  is a medium that picks up, moves, and eventually lays down pieces of broken rock matter.  II. Tectonic Forces, Rock Structure and Landforms A. Deformation is seen with rock structure, or the nature, orientation, inclination,  and arrangement of affected rock layers.  B. Strike is the compass direction of the line that forms at the intersection of a tilted  rock layer and a horizontal place.  C. The inclination of the rock later, or the dip, is measured with right angles adjacent to the strike.  D. Compressional tectonic forces push crustal rock together.  E. Tensional tectonic forces pull parts of the crust away from each other.  F. Shearing tectonic forces slide parts of Earth’s crust past each other.   G .   Compressional Tectonic Forces 1. Folding, which is a bending or crumpling of rock layers, occurs when  compressional forces are applied to rocks that are ductile (bendable), as  opposed to brittle.  2. As elements of rock structure, unfolds are called anticlines and down folds are called synclines.  3. Asymmetrically folded rocks overturn and are so compressed that the fold  is horizontal, these are known as recumbent folds.  4. Faulting is the slippage or displacement of rocks along a fracture surface,  and the fracture along which movement has occurred is called a fault.  5. The steep, high­angle fault from compressional forces is called a reverse  fault.  6. When compression pushes a mass of rock along a low­angle fault so it  overrides rocks on the other side the fracture surface is called a thrust  fault and the shallow displacement is an over thrust.  H. Tensional Tectonic Forces 1. Tensional forces cause the crust to break into blocks called fault blocks  that separate from each other by normal faults.  2. An escarpment, often shortened to scarp, is a steep cliff, which may be tall or short.  3. A cliff that results from movement along a fault is specifically a fault  scarp.  I. Shearing Tectonic Forces 1. Faults with an up or down movement along the fault plane extending into  the earth are called dip­slip faults.  2. The direction of slippage is parallel to the surface trace, or the strike of the fault, is called a strike­slip fault, or because of the horizontal motion a  lateral fault.  III. Earthquakes   A. Measuring Earthquake Size 1. Earthquakes are ground motions of Earth caused when accumulating  tectonic stress is relieved by the sudden displacement of rocks along a  fault.  2. The subsurface location where rock displacement and the resulting  earthquake originate is the earthquake focus, which could be located  anywhere up to 435 miles below the surface.  3. The earthquake epicenter is the point on Earth’s surface that lies directly  above the focus, and it is where the strongest shock is normally felt.  4. In 1935 Charles F. Richter developed a numerical scale of earthquake  magnitude to express the size of earthquakes as recorded by a  seismograph, which is a sensitive instruments used to measure ground  shaking.  5. The energy released from moderate and major earthquakes is determined  using formulas for the more accurate moment magnitude instead of using  the original procedure.  6. A different type of scale that can be used to record and investigate patterns of earthquake intensity, which is the damage caused by an earthquake and  the degree of its impact on people.  7. The modified Mercalli scale of earthquake intensity uses categories  numbered from 1­12.  IV. Igneous Processes and Landforms A. Volcanic Eruptions 1. Volcanism refers to the extrusion of rock matter from Earth’s subsurface  to the exterior and the creation of surface terrain features as a result.  2. Volcanos are mountains or hills that form this way.  3. Plutonism refers to igneous processes that occur below Earth’s surface,  including the cooling of magma to form intrusive igneous rocks and rock  masses.  4. Explosive eruptions violently blast pieces of molten and solid rock into the air whereas molten rock pours less violently onto the surface as flowing  streams of lava in effusive eruptions.  5. Variations in eruptive style and in the landforms produced by volcanism  stem mainly from the differences in viscosity, or the resistance to flowing,  of the magma feeding the eruption and the gas content.  6. Rock fragments erupt in a range of sizes from volcanic ash, which is sand­ size or smaller to cinders, lapilli, and blocks.  B. Volcanic Landforms  1 .     Lava Flows a. Layers of erupted rock matter that poured or oozed over the  landscape when they were molten are lava flows.  b. A think surface layer of lava in contact with the atmosphere  solidifies, while the molten lava beneath continues to move,  carrying the thin, hardened crust along and wrinkling it into a ropy  surface form called pahoehoe.  c. This causes the thick layer of hardened crust to break up into  sharp­edged and jagged blocks, making a surface known as aa.  d. Lava flows don’t have to emanate directly from volcanos, they can  come from deep fractures called fissures that are independent from  mountains or hills of volcanic origin.  e. In some places multiple layers of basalt flows have constructed a  flat­topped, elevated table land known as a basaltic plateau.   2 .     Shield Volcanos a. When numerous successive basalt lava flows occur in a region they eventually pile up into the shape of a large mountain called a  shield volcano which resembles a giant shield.   3 .     Cinder Cones a. The smallest type of volcano, typically only a couple of hundred  meters high, is a cinder cone.  b. The steep slows of accumulated pyroclastic lie at or near the angle  of repose, which is the steepest angle that a pile of loose material  and maintain without rocks sliding or rolling down the slope.   4 .     Composite Cones a. A composite cone is formed when an eruption is sometimes  effusive and sometimes explosive.  b. They are also called strata volcanos because they are constructed  of layers of pyroclastic and lava.  c. These explosive eruptions are commonly accompanied by  pyroclastic flows which are fast­moving density currents of  airborne volcanic ash, hot gases, and streams that flow downhill  close to the ground like an avalanche.   5 .     Plug Domes a. Where extremely vicious silica­rich magma pushed up into the  vent of a volcanic cone but does not flow father, it forms a plug  dome.  6. Calderas a. A large depression made when the eruption of a volcano expels so  much material and relieves so much pressure within the magma  chamber that only a large and deep depression remains in the area  that previously contained the volcanos summit, it termed a caldera. C. Plutonism and Intrusion 1. Bodies of magma that exist beneath the surface or masses of intrusive  igneous rock that cooled and solidified beneath the surface are called  igneous intrusions, or plutons.  2. when exposed at the surface an irregularly shaped intrusion is a stock, if it  covers an area less than 100 square kilometers, if it’s larger than that it is  known as a batholith.  3. A laccolith is a mushroom shaped intrusion that develops where magma  pushed its way between preexisting horizontal layers of rock which causes the overlaying strata to bulge upwards.  4. Magma sometimes intrudes between rock layers without bulging them  upward and solidifies into a horizontal sheet of intrusive igneous rock  called a sill.  5. A dike is an igneous intrusion with a well­like slope.  6. A volcanic neck is a vertical igneous intrusion that solidified in the vent of a volcano. 


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