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Forensic Science Chapter 3 notes

by: Makenzie Hooper

Forensic Science Chapter 3 notes Anth 357

Marketplace > Towson University > Anthropology/Sociology > Anth 357 > Forensic Science Chapter 3 notes
Makenzie Hooper
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About this Document

These notes cover chapter 3
Forensic anthropology
Dana Kollman
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Makenzie Hooper on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 357 at Towson University taught by Dana Kollman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Forensic anthropology in Anthropology/Sociology at Towson University.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
Chapter 3: Investigating Techniques I. Forensic Psychology 1. The branch of applied psychology that addresses the collection, examination, and presentation of evidence for legal purposes. 2. Job description a. Evaluate expert testimonies regarding criminal forensic issues.  Competency  Waiving Miranda rights  Domestic violence  Sexual disorders b. Evaluating testimonies of civil issues  Personal injury  Child custody  Mental disability c. Assessment, treatment, and consultation for aggressive people d. Research, testimony, and consultation of psychological issues that impact the legal process  Eye witnesses  Jury selection e. Give specialized treatment to those involved in the legal process f. Consult to lawmakers about psychological implications in public policy g. Train law enforcement h. Train mental health systems on forensic issues i. Meditation and conflict resolution II. Criminal Profiling 1. Any process used to infer distinctive personality traits, behavioral tendencies, physical and demographic characteristics, or even geographic locations of individuals responsible for committing criminal acts from physical and/or behavior. 2. 5 reasons to exclude criminal profiling from forensic or legal psychology proposed by Wrightsman a. Criminal profilers are not psychologists or obtain that type of training. b. Behavior Science Unit, FBI- training in criminal profiling  Investigative psychology- the application of behavior science methods to criminal investigative work c. Number of jobs in this field is limited. Less than a dozen people employed. d. Many professionals question the validity of criminal profiling. More like an art than science. e. Criminal profiler’s testimony most likely will not meet the requirements of Daubert. 3. Offender Description a. Ageneral description that can include personality traits, psychological pathologies, behavior patterns, and demographic variables of the offender, which is arrived at through the process of criminal profiling. 4. Process of generating a criminal profile a. Areport on offender characteristics based on crime analysis and victimology  Crime analysis- report that examines behavioral evidence and interpret it.  Behavioral evidence- victim behaviors, offender behaviors, and environmental circumstances. b. Can include opinions of the motive of the offender.  Victimology- study all the available info regarding the victim of the crime. III. Effectiveness of criminal profiling 1. Behavioral evidence analysis- analyzing behavior patterns a. another name for criminal profiling 2. Two phases a. Investigative phase  Analyzing behavioral evidence in order to develop an offender description  5 goals of investigative phase  Reduce number of potential suspects and to prioritize the investigation of suspects into smaller pools  Facilitate linkage of potential related crimes by examining and identifying similar crime scenes  Provide investigators with relevant leads and strategies.  Assess the potential for the escalation of crime  Keep the investigation on track b. Trial phase  Analysis of forensic evidence and the offender to assist in various aspects of a trial.  5 goals of trial phase  Assist in evaluating the nature and value of the forensic evidence  Assist in developing interrogative strategies.  Assist in developing insight into offender psychological motives  Assist in developing insight into the offender’s state of mind before, during, and after the crime  Facilitate crime scene linkage issues through examining MO and signature behavior. IV. Historical Approaches 1. There is little success in predicting how individuals will behave under future circumstances based on psychological profiles developed form archival data. V. Common Characteristics 1. The profiler attempts to identify similarities among individuals who commit the same or similar crimes. 2. Problems with this approach a. Bulk of the research is conducted with convicted offenders b. It is quite possible to misunderstand baseline rates. c. Despite popular belief that such typologies are accurate, there is no evidence to support these claims d. Racial profiling  Suspecting an individual of illegal activity because of ethnic background, such as race. Racial profiling is illegal VI. Crime Scene Analysis 1. Use this to develop an offender description 2. Doesn’t specify any particular individual as the likely suspect 3. Provides statistical probabilities that the individual will have certain characteristics  These are statistical prediction and can be wrong 4. Crime scene characteristics a. Physical and behavior features of a crime scene.  Location type (Indoor/outdoor)  Crime scene type  Point of contact  Primary/ secondary scenes  Method of attack, of approach, of control  Planning/preparation  Use of force


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