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Biology chapter 7

by: Kasie Ryan

Biology chapter 7 BIOL-1110-002

Kasie Ryan
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About this Document

Notes over chapter 7
General Biology
Sally M. Salah
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kasie Ryan on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL-1110-002 at University of Central Missouri taught by Sally M. Salah in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at University of Central Missouri.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
DNA structure and gene function 10/06/2016 ▯ DNA stores the info that the cell needs to produce proteins. ▯ ▯ Griffiths experiment showed that something in a lethal strain of bacteria could transform a harmless strain into a lethal strain. (Mouse and heat killed strain S and Strain R) ▯ ▯ Hershey and Chase showed that DNA not protein, contains genetic information. (DNA gets transferred or affected, not the protein coat) ▯ ▯ DNA is a double helix. Many scientists collaborated in the discovery of it’s structure. Hydrogen bonds connect complementary DNA strands. ▯ ▯ DNA is composed of nucleotides. Sugar group, nitrogen base, phosphate group. A G C T (Purines and pyrimidine’s) ▯ ▯ Adenine binds to Thymine A=T ▯ Guanine binds to cytosine G=C ▯ Base Pair ▯ The nucleotide sequence in one strand therefore determines the sequence in the other strand. The two strands are complementary. ▯ ▯ A GENE is a sequence of DNA that encodes a specific protein. Protein production occurs in two stages:  Transcription (DNA to RNA)  Translation (nucleotides to amino acids) Brownie analogy ▯ ▯ Transcription produces an RNA molecule that’s complementary to DNA. ▯ In translation, the info in RNA is used to make a protein. ▯ ▯ RNA has two oxygens, RIBOSE. ▯ Four groups are A G C U Adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil. ▯ RNA is generally single stranded. ▯ Carries protein encoding info; helps to make proteins; catalyzes some reactions. ▯ RNA also plays an important role in protein production ▯ Messenger RNA  Carries info that specifies a protein  Three mRNA bases in a row from a codon which corresponds to one amino acids ▯ Ribosomal RNA  Along with proteins, forms the ribosome needed for protein synthesis. ▯ Transfer RNA  Connect mRNA codon with correct amino acid. ▯ ▯ Transcription occurs in the nucleus ▯ Transcription has 3 steps  Initiation o RNA POLYMERASE binds to the promoter, which is the beginning of the gene. Enzymes unzip the DNA. The DNA template strands encodes the RNA molecule.  Elongation o RNA polymerase moves along the template stand, making an RNA copy of DNA in 3’-5’ direction, adding nucleotides at 3’ end only. The RNA molecule is complementary to the DNA template strand. The strands are antiparallel, the 3’ end of rna matches the 5’ end.  termination o RNA polymerase reaches the terminator, which is the end of the gene. RNA, DNA, AND RNA POLYMERASE separate. DNA becomes a double helix again. ▯ ▯ RNA is processesed in the nucleus  Poly A tail and mRNA cap are added to the RNA.  Cap: Enhances ribosome binding and tail allows RNA molecule to last longer before degradation. ▯ ▯ Introns are removed from the RNA molecule ▯ sequence of gene that are not translated into an amino acid ▯ Exons are spliced together to form mature mRNA. ▯ The RNA then leaves the nucleus. Onward to translation. ▯ ▯ Translation builds the protein ▯ Initiation  Small ribosomal subunit binds to mRNA at leader sequence o Starts with AUG, which attracts tRNA –methionine.  Large ribosomal subunit binds to small subunit  First tRNA molecule binds.  tRNA complementary base pairs to mRNA ▯ Elongation  The second tRNA enter the ribosomes next to the first tRNA  Amino acids covalently bond.  The first tRNA leaves  The amino acids remain bonded together as the protein continues to grow.  Polypeptide: ten or more amino acids.  A release factor binds. ▯ Translation is efficient when multiple ribosomes attach to one mRNA molecule simultaneously. ▯ ▯ Protein synthesis is highly regulated  Protein synthesis requires lots of energy!  Cells save energy by only producing needed proteins.  Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes regulate protein synthesis, but in different way.  Genes in prokaryotes are organized into operons, groups of genes that are always transcribed together.  The LAC operon includes three genes that encode lactose-digesting enzymes.  The promoter and the operator control gene expression.  A repressor protein blocks transcription by binding to the operator and preventing rna polymerase from synthesizing the proteins. ▯ Eukaryotes:  Gene regulation starts in the nucleus.  Transcription can only occur if the correct transcription factors are present.  Transcription factors bind to nucleotide sequences called enhancers. A TATA binding protein binds to the promoter.  Transcription factors, the tata binding protein and rna polymerase form a complex proteins that initiate transcription.  Some mRNA may be degraded.  Other mRNA may be silenced by microrNA. Short sequences of nucleotides that bind to the mRNA and prevent translation.  Proteins must be properly folded before they are functional. ▯ ▯ Mutations Change DNA ▯ Deletion= nucleotides deleted ▯ Subsition= nucleotides changed ▯ Wildtype= original nucleotide sequence. ▯ ▯ (A single base sub in a hemoglobin gene causes blood ells to form abnormally, leading to sickle cell disease) ▯ ▯


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