Ch. 13 Social Psychology
Ch. 13 Social Psychology Psych1100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elise Parziale on Thursday April 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych1100 at Ohio State University taught by Gim Toh in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Psychology 1100 in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 04/02/15
Learning Ch7 Learning change in an organism s behaviour or thought as a result of experience Theories of Learning Classical Conditioning 1 When a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired With a stimulus that naturally produces a response I biological 2 Pavlov s Dogs 3 Conditioning a UnConditioned Stimulus US something that naturally produces a biological reaction b UnConditioned Response UR a re exive reaction to a stimulus c Conditioned Stimulus CS initially neutral stimulus becomes associated With UR d Conditioned Response CR learned reactionresponse US I UR UR and CR are same behaviour but brought about by different CS I CR stimuli 4 3 Phases a Acquisition learning connection b Extinction elimination of response c Spontaneous Recoverv seemingly extinct CR reappears When CS is presented again Generalization process by Which CS similar to original elicits a CR 6 Discrimination displaying a less pronounced response to CS that U differs from original CS 7 SecondOrder Conditioning developing a CR to a CS by virtue of its association With another CS 8 Survival can depend on paying attention to pairing Operant Conditioning 1 Learning controlled by consequences of an organism s behaviour 2 Law of Effect behaviours that lead to satisfaction tend to be repeated and viceversa Operant Behaviour voluntary behaviour Reinforces stimulus that increases likelihood of behaviour or Punishes stimulus that decreases likelihood of behaviour or Skinner s Box Primary and Secondary 9958 1 a Primary Reinforcement satisfies biological needs I food shelter warmth etc b Secondarv Reinforcement associated with primary reinforce through classical conditioning I money good grades etc 8 Over Justification Effect a When a behaviour stops because they were rewarded i When operant conditioning fails 9 Basic Principles a Stimulus Control i Give responses only when in appropriate context Discrimination b Extinction i Occurs when reinforcement stops ii Continuous Reinforcement 1Fixed consistency 2 Variable random iii Intermittent Reinforcement 1Ratio of behaviours 2 Interval time elapsed iv Variable ratio is most resistant to extinction I slot machines 10 Applications a Token Economv system set up for reinforcing target behaviours b Classical and operant conditioning work together to keep phobias alive i TwoProcess TheorV 1 Phobia acquired by classical conditioning 2 Phobia maintained by operant conditioning I negative reinforcement c Shaping reinforcing responses that come successively closer to desired response d Superstitious Behaviour become accidentally reinforced Observational Learning 1 Learn by watching others TBobo Doll Studv a Independent variable I if kids saw aggressive adults bDependent variable I how kids behaved 3 Diffusion Chain individuals initially learn a behaviour by observing and then serve as a model for others 4 Mirror Neurons cells in prefrontal cortex I activated by specific motions when someone both performs and observes the motion a Watching and doing activates cells Implicit Learning 1 Takes place Without awareness 2 Habituation react less and less to prolonged exposure to stimulus Social Psychology Ch 13 Study of causes and consequences of sociality Social Behaviour 1 Survival I humans are one of the few species Who are ultrasocial 2 Aggression behaviour With intent to harm verbalphysical a Frustration Aggression Hypothesis only aggress When goals are blocked b Gender Differences i Mb higher physical aggression ii Female higher relational aggression 0 Cultural In uences i Less prevalent in Asian cultures ii Higher rates of violence in culture of honour I Southern US 3 Cooperation behaviour by 2 people that leads to mutual benefit a Prisoner s Dilemma cooperation is inherently risky ex the golden balls game b Groups collection of people Who have something in common i Groupthink opinions of individuals in the group merge ii Deindividuation immersion in a group causes people to lose sight of personal values 1 Feeling anonymous diffusion of responsibility act like group member 2 Stanford Prison Experiment Zimbardo c Altruism behaviours that benefits another Without benefiting oneself i Reciprocal Altruism I karma ii Bvstander Effect 1 Must realize it is an emergency 2 Must feel responsible a Diffusion of responsibility Social In uence the ability to in uence someone s behaviours l The Hedonic Motive motivation to seek pleasure and avoid pain 2 The ADDroval Motive motivation to seek acceptance and avoid rejection a Normative In uence another person s behaviour provides info about What is appropriate i Norms unwritten rules that govern social situations ii Norm of Reciprocitv bay back favours iii Conformity peers iv Obedience superiors I dark side no thinking 3 The AccuracV Motive want to be right a Beliefs conclusion based on factual evidence b Attitudes how we feel about beliefs c Consistency i Coanitive Dissonance When people recognize inconsistency in their actions attitudes or beliefs I has to change thoughts Social Discrimination
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