New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapters 6-7 (Part 2): Sensory Systems

by: Sierra Gnecco

Chapters 6-7 (Part 2): Sensory Systems PSB2000

Marketplace > Florida State University > Natural Sciences > PSB2000 > Chapters 6 7 Part 2 Sensory Systems
Sierra Gnecco
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Part 2 of chapters 6 & 7!
Introduction to Brain and Behavior
Maria Greenwood
Class Notes
biopsychology, notes, gustatory, Visual System
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Brain and Behavior

Popular in Natural Sciences

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Gnecco on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSB2000 at Florida State University taught by Maria Greenwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Brain and Behavior in Natural Sciences at Florida State University.


Reviews for Chapters 6-7 (Part 2): Sensory Systems


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/06/16
PSB2000 Chapters 6 & 7 Part II Sensory Systems By Sierra Gnecco Chapter 7 7.4: Chemical Senses: Smell & Taste (cont.) Gustatory System ● Taste receptor cells are found on the tongue and in parts of the oral cavity. They typically occur in clusters known as ​taste buds​. ○ Often located around small protuberances called ​papillae​. There are four types of papillae: ■ Fungiform​- “fungus or mushroom,” small, 1mm or less in diameter. (6 taste buds per papillae) ■ Foliate​- “folded”, also used for tasting. ■ Circumvallat​ “around,” very large, also used for tasting. (most have 10 on back of tongue) ■ Filiform​- latin for thread, supports cells. (no taste receptors) ● There are five different kinds of taste receptor cells, one for each primary taste. ○ Sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami (savory) ○ Umami was discovered by a Japanese chemist, Kikunae Ikeda, in the late 1800s. ● New genetic technology led to the discovery of the ​g-protein-linked receptors that were in the membranes of the taste receptor cells ​umami, sweet, and bitter​. ● Salty and sour​ have​ ion channels​. ● Tas○ Taste pore → taste cell → gustatory afferent nerve ○ Afferent nerves leave the mouth as part of the Chorda tympani (branch of facial nerve, VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), and ​vagus (X) cranial nerves​, which carry info from the front of the tongue, the back of the tongue, and the back of the oral cavity, respectively. These fibers end in the ​solitary 2 nucleus​ of the medulla, where they synapse on neurons that project to the ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus​. The gustatory axons of the ventral posterior nucleus project to the ​primary gustatory cortex​ in the insula. ○ Summary:​ Cranial nerves → solitary nucleus (nucleus of the solitary tract) → ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus → primary gustatory Brain Damage & the Chemical Senses ● Anosmia​- the inability to smell. ○ Most common cause: blow to the head that causes a displacement of the brain within the skull and shears the olfactory nerves (cracking cribriform plate). ○ Hyposmia​ – reduced ability to detect odors. ○ Parosmia (troposmia)​ – brain perceives odor as an unnaturally unpleasant odor (i.e. flowers smelling like feces or cake frosting smelling like burnt wood). ○ Euosmia​ – brain perceives odor that is normally aversive as pleasant (reverse the above). ○ Phantosmia​ – olfactory hallucination; detecting odors that aren’t there. Can be pleasant or aversive. ● Ageusia​- the inability to taste. ○ Rare b/c sensory signals from the mouth are carried via three separate pathways. ● Less complete deficits in olfaction: Alzheimer’s disease, Down syndrome, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Korsakoff’s syndrome, and Parkinson’s disease. Chapter 6 6.1: Light Enters the Eye and Reaches the Retina ● Light is defined as waves of electromagnetic energy between 380-760 nanometers. ● Light → cornea → pupil → lens → retina ● The amount of light reaching the retinas is regulated by the irises. ● Cornea​- protective outer layer of the eye which refracts (bends) light. 3 ● Pupil-​ hole in center of the iris where light enters the eye. ○ Adjusts its size in response to changes in illumination. This represents a compromise b/w sensitivity (ability to detect presence of dimly lit objects) and acuity (ability to see the details of objects). ● Lens​- focuses incoming light on the retina. Refracts light; changes to adjust focal distance (accommodation). 6.2: The Retina and Translation of Light into Neural Signals ● Retina​- neural tissue; where photoreceptors lie. ○ It converts light to neural signals, conducts them toward the CNS, and participates in the processing of signals. ○ Comprised of five layers of diff. types of neurons: ​receptors, horizontal cells, amacrine cells, and retinal ganglion cells. ● The amacrine and horizontal cells are specialized for lateral communication (communication across the major channels, vertically connected). ● Retinal neurons communicate both chemically via synapses and electrically via gap junctions. ● Light reaches the receptor layer after passing through the layers. ● Photoreceptors (rods and cones) → Bipolar cells → Retinal ganglion cells → Axons of retinal ganglion cells form optic nerve, which leaves back of eyeball, and goes to brain. ● Blind spot​- the gap in the receptor layer left after the bundle of retinal ganglion cell axons leave the eye. ○ No photoreceptors in the blind spot. Cone & Rod Vision ● Cones- ​ cone-shaped receptors responsible for color vision ● Rods​- rod-shaped receptors responsible for black/white/grey vision. ● Duplexity theory- cones and rods mediate different kinds of vision. ○ Cones:​ Photopic vision​- good lighting and provides ​high-acuity​ colored perceptions of the world,​ poor sensitivity. ○ Rods:​ Scotopic vision​- dim illumination, ​high sensitivity ​and ​poor acuity​. 4 6.3: From Retina to Primary Visual Cortex ● Optic nerve (begins at optic disc) → optic chiasm (½ of neurons cross to the contralateral side) → optic tract projects to the superior colliculus and the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus → primary visual cortex. Other material ● ​Blindsight​- A response to visual stimuli outside conscious awareness of “seeing” ○ How? ■ Place cells​- fire when an animal passes a certain landmark ■ Head-direction cells​ track which way the face is pointing ■ Border cells​- fire when an animal is close to a wall or boundary of some kind. ● Change blindness​- no memory of something which an individual was not paying attention to. ○ If were are not paying close attention to something and it disappears, we do not notice the disappearance of the object. ○ Typically, a change is detected by motion (superior colliculus). ■ We can recognize when something is moving more than we can recognize when something is disappearing or changing color. ○ Ex: You’re watching a movie and paying attention to the main character talking. Something disappears in the background while the character is talking, but you do not notice it b/c your attention is not upon that object. ● Red-green color blindness ○ S​-cones: ​Short​ ~400 nm) ○ M​-cones: M​ edium ​ ~525nm) ○ L​-cones: ​Long​ (~700nm) ■ 2 kinds of cones: ● S & L b/c M-cone filled with L opsin. The M-cone becomes red. ● S & M b/c L-cone filled with M opsin. The L cone becomes green. 5


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.