Art 1300 - Lecture Notes Week #7
Art 1300 - Lecture Notes Week #7 Art 1300
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Furman on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Art 1300 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Professor Gomez-Miraval in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Art Appreciation in Art at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Art Appreciation October 4, 2016 Professor Gomez-Miraval Lecture Notes KEY PEOPLE KEY TERMS KEY INFORMATION KEY PLACES Painting Continued Acrylic Invented in the 20 century with the boom of Tupperware (plastic products) o Nothing had been invented since oil in the 1300s Binder = liquid plastic Support = anything really: canvas, wood,body, etc. Completely mimics oil, it can do everything that oil does in paintings o Moreover, acrylic allowsthe artist to paint without having to deal withthe harsh chemicals Dilute, glaze, clean with water o Can help in portraying a translucent quality to mimic watercolor Dries much quicker than oil (not having to wait months), can dry ina day’s time o This does not mean we cannot workwiththe painting once it’s dry The colors change after they dry o May go lighter or darker (but usually lighter) Drippings o By mixing the paint with water,it facilitates the drippingeffect o This characteristic is specific for acrylic paint Often used in impasto paintings o Because the acrylic paint is much cheaper o These paintings are often heavier because the paint is so cheap and they can apply a lot more o Acrylic is duller than oil,also flatter dimensionally o Doesn’t convey as much detail as oil Acrylic paintings do not yellow with age (so far, we have to waitat least100 years to make this determination for sure) Airbrush Works as a brush Paint goes in the small container, air comes inthrough a hose, small hole above the hole to allowpressure to be release,nozzle allowsthe release of the paint Have to control the pressure in order to prevent the paint from being releasedina blob like fashion Fine controlled mist of paint achieved withthe airbrush(the hole above the hose allows for the control over the paint) o Even application of the paint After the airbrush, nothing new has been invented Acrylic paintings do not yellow with age (so far, we have to waitat least100 years to make this determination for sure) Printmaking: The Art of Multiples (Still a two dimensional media) Called the Art of Multiples because it involves pulling several multiples from the original Requirements of Printmaking o Matrix o Print/Impressions (these words are used interchangeably) o Edition Four main/traditional processes o Relief – wood cut, linocut o Intaglio – engraving, dry point, etching, aquatint o Lithography o Silkscreen Edition Different from a drawing or painting due to the amount of color or blackand white, very flat (lack of texture), information accompanies the print and is placed below the work (left = the title, middle = # of print and edition, right = signature) o The numbers providedin the middle are important for price and quality o 1/20 means you have the first print out of a batch of 20, the first print is more crisp o Each print is original (not fully unique but has its ownqualities) o 20/20 means you have the 20 print, the quality is lower and it is less crispbut it is still a relatively nice print out of the batch Prints are more accessibledue to the fact that they are often printed in large batches Matrix Where the artist creates the original composition, the one that is reproduced Matrix can vary depending on the type of process used by the artist When you finish the batch, you have to destroy the matrix o People can reprint without the permission of the artist or their family o Devalues the other prints from the original editions (not signed by the artist worth less) o Helps the thief make money when it is not rightfully their own o Ex: Rembrandt – a painter and printmaker who experienced this after his death, reprintings of his works from the matrixes that he left behind and did not destroy An alternative would be to place an “X” across the matrix to prevent reprinting Relief Remove the areas where we don’t want ink placed,the areas left uncut awaywillhold the ink Matrix = wood o Remove the parts of the wood that we don’t want included in the print o Raised areas stay, cut awayareas leave space o Designs have to be done backwards on the matrix (this is true for all processes) No value o We have the color of the ink and the color of the paper o The illusion of value can be createdthrough hatching and cross-hatching to convey light through highlights (rather than shadow) Working with linear quality o Hatching and cross hatching to convey light and shadow o Qualities of the wood canalso be conveyed Hard wood allows for increasedcontrol over the line Softer wood conveys the characteristics of the wood,bolder The oldest technique o Used to print images on books o inspires the printing process with metal letters pressinginto the paper o used to transfer images to fabric Color o Japanese prints highly influenced printmaking artists of the 20 century th th The Japanese printings were created inthe 18 and 19 centuries Europeans loved their prints o Difficult to achieve because a single matrix per color has to be utilized (for every single color) Need to be veryprecise inorder to make sure that the piece of woodis cut in the exact same section where it needs to go inorder to prevent overlapping We don’t want there to be empty spaces or gaps inbetween the colors of the print o Often we just see black and white because the use of color is extremely labor intensive Linocut o Matrix = linoleum (cheap, soft plastic that is easierto carve) o Still involves cutting awaythe parts that we don’t want printed o Larger scales o Looks more like drawings Woodcut prints allowfor thousands of images to be rolledfrom the press whereas linocut is softer and lasts a lesser amount of time o Each time linoleum is passedthrough the roller,it expands the matrix slightly to the point where it is no longer useable Intaglio Removes the areas that we want printed on the paper Involves cutting the matrix to create the design The deeper the grooves, the darker the line willbe The shallower the groove, the lighter the line willbe Engraving o Uses a tool called burin Cuts the matrix o Matrix is metal, could be any metal but it is usually copper o The quality of line achieved with a burin is very sharp, clean, precise,and smooth o Creates shadow through the utilization of hatching and cross hatching Etching o Matrix = metal It is then coveredwith ground Ground is made of different materials (asphalt, varnish coating, wax, etc.) It protects the metal from the binding of the acid Ground is then removed so that the acidcan “bite” the metal Submerged in the acidbath for a couple of minutes The “biting” of the acidon the metal creates the lines Darker = leave it in the bath longer Lighthr = leave it in the bath for less time o Invented in the 19 century o The least directprocess of printmaking This is because the areas the artist wants printed are scrapedfrom the ground so they receive the acidbath The acid bath creates the lines,not the artist o Characteristics Lines not sharp, clear,crispbecause we are relying on the acidfor the lines Hazy lines Precisionagainst freedom (the artist needs to decide which they want: precisionwith engraving, freedom with etching) If the artist wants color in the print, they need to utilize a single matrix per color o Ex: Rembrandt’s prints Aquatint Matrix = metal Conveys rough areas of light or shadow as well as broad areas of color It is a resin (placed in a pouch or salt shaker to be spread over the matrix) Can convey value Resin placed on the matrix, melts, and then placedin anacid bath Granulous texture due to the particlesof resinnot being equally distributed New invention in the 19 century Drypoint Drypoint needle Matrix = metal Scratch the metal surface with the needle inorder to create a very tiny burr in the metal o Don’t clean the burr, because it grabs more ink and inthe end conveys the line quality better (almost hairy like) o Burrs are very delicate which only allowsfor the making of 10 prints Often the technique used in the head of hair on people All these techniques can be used in the same workof art For color, each individual color needs its ownmatrix State When the artist changes the matrix in a drastic way o Makes significant changes o Ex. Rembrandt’s printings: Jesus’ trial State 1 – lack of Jesus as a focal point State 2 – matrix reworked inorder to make Jesus a focal point, he does this by removing some of the details inthe architecture, provides more shadow in some areas,removal of subjects in the print to make Jesus the focus o Ex: Picasso – Bull prints State 1 – naturalistic state State 3 – more detail,but moving towards abstract State 5 – more abstract still,less detail State 7 – abstract, very little detail State 11 – no detail,very abstract Lithography Works based on the fact that water repelsoil Greasy crayon to draw, greasy liquidcalledtusche to paint Matrix = Bavarian limestone Utilizes a Plano graphic process(works on a flat surface) o Make surface flat and smooth o Grabs the tools to draw on the stone o Ends up looking like a conte-crayon painting Can identify that it is a print based on the information at the bottom that declaresits edition The image area holds the ink and non-image areas repel the ink Ex. Diego Rivera’s dog printing Lithography prints look like drawings o However, need to be careful not to smudge or touch it (finger prints willshow on the print) Very long process Lithography is the most direct and effortless process out of all the printmaking processes If the artist wants to utilize color,they need to create individual matrixes for eachcolor Lithography requires the help of assistants or other artists to help move the stones, to keep the process going, and to help with color if it is added Screen Printing Screen-printing, sthkscreen, serigraphy Invented in the 20 century Ink passes through areas of the screenthat are not blocked Traditionally the screen was made from silk, frame border placedaround it, stretched tightly, create a stencil on the screen, pass ink over the stencil and into the paper Originally used for things like soup cans, cereal boxes, etc. Ex. Warhol o Begins using silkscreento make his artworkmore high end rather than commercial o Contradicted the desirefor precisionin silkscreenprinting to make a statement Blendable, but you need matrixes for each color Transparencies are possible (but each transparency has its own matrix just like withthe colors) (End of lecture for Oct. 4 ) Three Dimensional Media Exam #2 covers:Style, form, content, iconography, 2D media (drawing, painting, and printmaking) ***This material begins what will be covered onEXAM #3*** Consists of sculpture, architecture, ceramics, and metals o Metals and ceramics are consideredto be more of the craft category rather than fine arts o Sculpture and architecture are what willbe coveredin this class Sculpture o Three types Freestanding A 3D object that we should be able to appreciate from different points of view Also referred to as a “Sculpture inthe Round” Ex: Angel and person embracing each other o The angel is cupid (we can see this when we walkaround the sculpture because on his side is his quiver with arrows) Ex: Calder’snon-mobile sculpture o Can be experienced by walking around the sculpture as wellas underneath, through, and above Size does not determine whether or not it is freestanding…can be smaller Ex: Greek sculpture withperson lying down o From the backside, the personappears to be female with a hint of a bosom o From the front, the personis obviously male as his genitals are exposed Relief A 3D object that you cannot go around Most reliefs willbe found attached to buildings Reliefs always have a ground, and the figure will always come out of the background Two types: o High A large amount of figure coming from the background Casts shadows due to the figure’s elevationoff of the background (they protrude out from the ground) Done very wellby the Egyptians If the ground is removed, the figures nearly become statues on their own Ex: Matisse’s Black figures o Low There is still ground, but the figure has verylittle protrusion More like a slight bump in the surface of the work o Methods With these two types, you can do all three types of sculptures Additive Sculpture Adds material to whatever workyou are completing Modeling o Uses pliablematerials (flexible,soft, manipulatable) o Traditional materials are wax and clay o We want pliablematerials because we willbe molding the sculpture with the hands o Ex. Jar from South American Mancha culture Used as a propaganda method Faces of new governor wereon the jar Give the governor this jar filled withalcohol o Reinforcements canbe used Armature – the skeleton of the piece,reinforces the workin order to give it strength or help make a piece hollow Can be made of wood,mesh, chicken wire,etc. o The most directof all the additive techniques for sculpture methods Assemblage o Look for materials that have been discardedor recycled (something that serveda different function before becoming a sculpture) o The challenge is to assemble things that have absolutely nothing in common; but when they are together, they create a new concept, meaning, context o Looks to the whole initially (unity) rather than the individual pieces o Restricted by the shapes and sizes of the objects…because of this the artist doesn’t have as much control Construction o Uses raw materials (wood,plastic,metal) that are still in their just-processedform o The artist makes preparatorydrawings…decisions are made ahead of time and planned o After planning out the workwith preparatorydrawings, the artist uses the raw materials to carryout their artwork Casting o Requires BOTH a mold and a liquid material that will solidifyand remain solid o Traditionally – bronze is used as the liquidmaterial that willsolidify(it’s heavy material, soit tends to be used ina hollow manner o The lost waxtechnique Only allowsfor one figure, whereas casting allows for multiples Clay core gives the form and on top of that we work the mold inwax Wax rods are placedaround the waxmold (metal doesn’t like to be liquid, but we need it to cover the whole core prior to solidifying) Clay casing goes around the figure to protect the rods Placed in a kiln upside down and as it heats the figure, the waxdrains out and removes the mold (this is why it is calledthe lost waxtechnique) Metal is then poured inside the figure to fill the areas where the wax mold once was. Rods are removed and then the figure is polished and sanded to make sure the viewercannot tell that there were rods o In the 20 century, different materials were used (like aluminum, plaster,altered bronze, fiberglass, glass, plastic) Subtractive sculpture Removes the unwanted material; we carve out what we don’t need Carving o Traditionally the Block of material = stone or wood o Uses chisels and hammers to remove the material Needs to be done extremely slowly Mistakes are costlyand irreversible Ex: Michelangelo’s unfinished work(unfinished because he was required by the pope to workon the Sistine Chapel (claimed he was not creating 3D objects from the blockbut rather releasing them from it) Petra, Jordan The entire city is carvedfrom the living rock in the middle of the desert(at the time it was an oasis) This was a cityfor the living and for the dead o Homes o Moseleums Ex: Venus carvedfrom a pebble Oldest female figurine everyfound ~40,000 years old Stone is not forgivable, woodis more forgivable…it willshow the mistake but it is easier to deal with Environmental Sculpture Installation o A room-sized assemblage or constructed sculpture that creates its own environment o It travels (changes venues) o Ex. The Dinner Table – Judy Chicago 1960s Dinner table created to occupy the entire room 49ft on each side (it is triangular) Each placement seats an important female figure from our history (39 women) This piece traveledfor more than 35 years Created under the feminist movement in art…it honored females that had beenforgotten throughout history (beginning with earlytime (snake goddess) and moves toward more current times (Emily Dickinson, etc.)) Used materials that were typically deemed “women’s materials”…like embroidery and ceramics Put her own spinon it by taking the size to another level Site specific Earthwork (End of Lecture for Oct. 6 )
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