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Anatomy and Physiology week 5

by: Amy Casida

Anatomy and Physiology week 5 Bio121

Marketplace > Stark State College > Anatomy and Physiology > Bio121 > Anatomy and Physiology week 5
Amy Casida


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This is Chapter 2 and 3 and Lab notes!
Anatomy and physiology 1
Dr. Ryan
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology, Chemistry, organic, inorganic, bones
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Casida on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio121 at Stark State College taught by Dr. Ryan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and physiology 1 in Anatomy and Physiology at Stark State College.


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Date Created: 10/06/16
Lecture  Notes  Chap  2&3  continued     Bases-­‐  a)when  it  reacts,  it  gives  off  OH-­‐  (hydroxyl)  ion     b)The  pH  is  always    above  7     *Also  called  the  alkaline  side   7=neutral,  neither  acidic  nor  basic.  Example:  distilled  water     *Both  vital  and  lethal  to  our  bodies   -­‐kidneys  main  acid/base  neutralizer   -­‐also  liver  helps  balance-­‐out  acids  and  bases  in  body     <7               >7   Acid             Base   H+                                                                                                                                  OH-­‐         7                      H O   2     Water-­‐  neutral     Physiological  pH  is  between  7.35  and  7.45,  so  we  usually  even  it  out  at   7.4     Acidosis-­‐  pH  is  below  our  physiological  pH  (just  7).   We  are  slightly  basic-­‐  7.4  *Our  bodies  want  to  attain  this  pH  level.     stomach  acid        tomatoes/grapes                                              Drain-­‐O   /                                                                              /   0      1          2        3          4          5          6        (7)        8          9        10          11          12          13        14              /                    \                                                        pure  water                  egg  whites   ▯-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐                    -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐▯                Stronger  acid         Stronger  base   -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐▯                        ▯-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐              Weaker  acid                                           Weaker  base               Compare  a  pH  of  2  &  6  2  is  40x  stronger  than  a  pH  of  6,    a  pH  of  2  is   10,000  times  stronger  than  a  pH  of  6.  Each  pH  is  10x  more  strong,  or   weak  of  an  acid  or  base,  depending  on  which  direction  you  go.    A  pH  of  1   is  10  times  as  strong  of  an  acid  than  a  pH  of  2.     ketoacids-­‐  we  produce  these,  insulin  breaks  these  down.     volatile  acids-­‐  can  go  from  liquid-­‐  acid  very  quickly       Monomer▯  polymer        rule/concept:  go  from  one▯  many        |                                                        \   building  blocks▯buildings  of  blocks   like  from  a:   Brick  ▯Wall▯Room▯House   Anabolism-­‐  going  from  one  monomer▯  polymer       Organic  Compounds-­‐  contain  carbon,  typically  with  O and  H  bond  2    them.   Carbohydrates-­‐sugars  and  starches.   -­‐a  carbon  chain  w/  an  H O2  molecule  attached.   -­‐ratio/proportion  of  1:2:1     C-­‐                    C-­‐          C-­‐                C-­‐              C            -­‐    C   |                        |                  |                        |                |                      |   H O2     2   H O 2      2 O   2     2  H O    H O        H O   (C H O )  ratio  of  1:2:1   6 12 6   monosaccharides-­‐   Glucose-­‐C H O -6‐ 12suga6   Fructose-­‐  C H O6 12frui6  sugar       polysaccharides-­‐glucose  +fructose=  sucrose  (table  sugar)  hydrogen  and   0 2  is  removed,  C H 12, 22nd 11 H O  is 2given-­‐off.     Glycogen-­‐  how  we  store  sugar,  a  long  chain  of  carbohydrates-­‐  stored  in   liver  and  muscle.   • Most  carbohydrates  end  in  “-­‐ose.”   • Example:  dextrose-­‐  IV  sugar     Why  do  we  have  carbohydrates?   Every  cell  membrane  has  a  sugar  extension,  glycocalyx  –  very  unique  to   each  person/cell,  use  this  to  differentiate  between   self/bacterium/something  else.     We  use  glucose  for  energy  the  same  way  we  would  process  a  whole  tank   of  oil  into  gasoline.           Lipids-­‐  Fats-­‐more  variety  than  carbohydrates  because  they  do  not  have   a  1:2:1  ratio.     Each  have  their  own  sets  of  mono-­‐  and  poly-­‐mers:   Triglicerides-­‐most  common  fats     1  monomer-­‐fatty  acids   Glycerol-­‐attaches  3  fatty  acids=trigliceride   *when  we  digest  fatty  acids,  we  chop  off  the  long  fatty  acid  chain,  and   can  create  sugar,  or  C H O .   6 12 6   Phospholipids-­‐primary  lipid  that  makes-­‐up  our  cell  membranes   Cholesterols-­‐some  steroids  and  hormones,  including  estrogen,   testosterone,  and  cortisol.       Fats  Function:   1. Cell  membranes   2. Hormones,  Inflammatory  Chemicals   3. Storage  of  Energy  and  protection  of  bones  &muscles                         Proteins-­‐  most  complex  of  the  organic  compounds.   amino  acids▯  the  monomers  for  proteins   all  have  similar  carbon  framework,  what  attaches  makes  it  unique.    Start   out  with  two  carbons:   NH 2                                                                                  \                                                    //          C  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  C      /                                                  \   X                  OH   X=variable  group,  this  changes  what  amino  acid  it  is.     We  have  20  different  types  of  amino  acids  in  our  bodies.  It  is  like  letters   of  the  alphabet,  but  the  variability  of  words/acids  are  almost  endless.     The  order/sequence  defines  what  type  of  acid  it  is.    It  needs  a  certain   type  of  order  for  it  to  work.    This  is  called  the  primary  structure.    It  must   be  kept  and  not  altered.     Example:    was  does  not  =  saw.    The  words  are  not  interchangeable,  the   word  means  something  different  if  the  letters  are  in  the  wrong  order.     Function  of  Proteins:   1.  Contraction   2.  Hormones.  Example:  Insulin,  Growth,  Thyroid,  Adrenaline   3.  Structural  Fibers-­‐  Collegen,  Elastin,  Bone,  Ligaments,  Tendons   4.  Transporting  Materials-­‐  Hemoglobin▯  Transport  O   2 5.  Antibodies/Immunities   6.  Identity  Markers-­‐  Examples:  Blood  Type   7.    Enzymes     Nucleic  Acids-­‐  RNA&DNA     “Dictionary”  for  all  the  “protein  spellings”  =DNA   Instead  of  pages=Chromosomes-­‐46   Instead  of  words=  Genes     Mutation-­‐abnormally-­‐made  gene/protein  in  the  DNA     copy  of  a  mutation=genetic  mutations     DNA  has  its  own  “repair  systems”   deoxyribonucleic  acid-­‐double  helix,  spirals        |   Nuleotiedes-­‐monomers  of  nucleic  acids          |   ribonucleic  acid-­‐  one-­‐strand,  like  a  ribbon     Everyone  has  a  unique  sequence  of  DNA   23  chromosomes  from  each  parent   genomes-­‐46  known  chromosomes   Can  target  mutated  DNA-­‐cancer  treatment.         Lab  Notes       Two  main  parts  of  bone  organization:   1. Axial   2. Appendicula     Girdels-­‐  Pectoral  (superior)                   &                Pelvic  (inferior)   Whole  hip:   Pelvic  girdle:  sacrum  (middle)   *right  hip-­‐coxal  bone                                      \                  pubic  syphisis              /   *left  hip-­‐coxal  bone     *Most  textbooks  look  @  right  side   pelvic  coxal  bone-­‐upper-­‐  ilium  “wing”       front  bottom,  ventral-­‐pubus       back  bottom,  dorsal-­‐  ischium   socket-­‐acetabulum,  meaning  “little  saucer  of  vinegar”     Femur-­‐thigh     Pelvic  Bone   Ilium-­‐anterior  superior  iliac  spine                          \               upper  part  of  hip                              /     anterior  inferior  iliac  spine   iliac  crest-­‐like  the  top  part  of  a  wave/  hill     Notch  that  holds  the  sciatic  nerve   -­‐greater  sciatic  notch     “spooned  out”  surface=fossa  –iliac  fossa                  Internal/opposite  surface  


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