Anatomy and Physiology week 5
Anatomy and Physiology week 5 Bio121
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Casida on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio121 at Stark State College taught by Dr. Ryan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and physiology 1 in Anatomy and Physiology at Stark State College.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Lecture Notes Chap 2&3 continued Bases-‐ a)when it reacts, it gives off OH-‐ (hydroxyl) ion b)The pH is always above 7 *Also called the alkaline side 7=neutral, neither acidic nor basic. Example: distilled water *Both vital and lethal to our bodies -‐kidneys main acid/base neutralizer -‐also liver helps balance-‐out acids and bases in body <7 >7 Acid Base H+ OH-‐ 7 H O 2 Water-‐ neutral Physiological pH is between 7.35 and 7.45, so we usually even it out at 7.4 Acidosis-‐ pH is below our physiological pH (just 7). We are slightly basic-‐ 7.4 *Our bodies want to attain this pH level. stomach acid tomatoes/grapes Drain-‐O / / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 (7) 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 / \ pure water egg whites ▯-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐▯ Stronger acid Stronger base -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐▯ ▯-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ Weaker acid Weaker base Compare a pH of 2 & 6 2 is 40x stronger than a pH of 6, a pH of 2 is 10,000 times stronger than a pH of 6. Each pH is 10x more strong, or weak of an acid or base, depending on which direction you go. A pH of 1 is 10 times as strong of an acid than a pH of 2. ketoacids-‐ we produce these, insulin breaks these down. volatile acids-‐ can go from liquid-‐ acid very quickly Monomer▯ polymer rule/concept: go from one▯ many | \ building blocks▯buildings of blocks like from a: Brick ▯Wall▯Room▯House Anabolism-‐ going from one monomer▯ polymer Organic Compounds-‐ contain carbon, typically with O and H bond 2 them. Carbohydrates-‐sugars and starches. -‐a carbon chain w/ an H O2 molecule attached. -‐ratio/proportion of 1:2:1 C-‐ C-‐ C-‐ C-‐ C -‐ C | | | | | | H O2 2 H O 2 2 O 2 2 H O H O H O (C H O ) ratio of 1:2:1 6 12 6 monosaccharides-‐ Glucose-‐C H O -6‐ 12suga6 Fructose-‐ C H O6 12frui6 sugar polysaccharides-‐glucose +fructose= sucrose (table sugar) hydrogen and 0 2 is removed, C H 12, 22nd 11 H O is 2given-‐off. Glycogen-‐ how we store sugar, a long chain of carbohydrates-‐ stored in liver and muscle. • Most carbohydrates end in “-‐ose.” • Example: dextrose-‐ IV sugar Why do we have carbohydrates? Every cell membrane has a sugar extension, glycocalyx – very unique to each person/cell, use this to differentiate between self/bacterium/something else. We use glucose for energy the same way we would process a whole tank of oil into gasoline. Lipids-‐ Fats-‐more variety than carbohydrates because they do not have a 1:2:1 ratio. Each have their own sets of mono-‐ and poly-‐mers: Triglicerides-‐most common fats 1 monomer-‐fatty acids Glycerol-‐attaches 3 fatty acids=trigliceride *when we digest fatty acids, we chop off the long fatty acid chain, and can create sugar, or C H O . 6 12 6 Phospholipids-‐primary lipid that makes-‐up our cell membranes Cholesterols-‐some steroids and hormones, including estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol. Fats Function: 1. Cell membranes 2. Hormones, Inflammatory Chemicals 3. Storage of Energy and protection of bones &muscles Proteins-‐ most complex of the organic compounds. amino acids▯ the monomers for proteins all have similar carbon framework, what attaches makes it unique. Start out with two carbons: NH 2 \ // C -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ C / \ X OH X=variable group, this changes what amino acid it is. We have 20 different types of amino acids in our bodies. It is like letters of the alphabet, but the variability of words/acids are almost endless. The order/sequence defines what type of acid it is. It needs a certain type of order for it to work. This is called the primary structure. It must be kept and not altered. Example: was does not = saw. The words are not interchangeable, the word means something different if the letters are in the wrong order. Function of Proteins: 1. Contraction 2. Hormones. Example: Insulin, Growth, Thyroid, Adrenaline 3. Structural Fibers-‐ Collegen, Elastin, Bone, Ligaments, Tendons 4. Transporting Materials-‐ Hemoglobin▯ Transport O 2 5. Antibodies/Immunities 6. Identity Markers-‐ Examples: Blood Type 7. Enzymes Nucleic Acids-‐ RNA&DNA “Dictionary” for all the “protein spellings” =DNA Instead of pages=Chromosomes-‐46 Instead of words= Genes Mutation-‐abnormally-‐made gene/protein in the DNA copy of a mutation=genetic mutations DNA has its own “repair systems” deoxyribonucleic acid-‐double helix, spirals | Nuleotiedes-‐monomers of nucleic acids | ribonucleic acid-‐ one-‐strand, like a ribbon Everyone has a unique sequence of DNA 23 chromosomes from each parent genomes-‐46 known chromosomes Can target mutated DNA-‐cancer treatment. Lab Notes Two main parts of bone organization: 1. Axial 2. Appendicula Girdels-‐ Pectoral (superior) & Pelvic (inferior) Whole hip: Pelvic girdle: sacrum (middle) *right hip-‐coxal bone \ pubic syphisis / *left hip-‐coxal bone *Most textbooks look @ right side pelvic coxal bone-‐upper-‐ ilium “wing” front bottom, ventral-‐pubus back bottom, dorsal-‐ ischium socket-‐acetabulum, meaning “little saucer of vinegar” Femur-‐thigh Pelvic Bone Ilium-‐anterior superior iliac spine \ upper part of hip / anterior inferior iliac spine iliac crest-‐like the top part of a wave/ hill Notch that holds the sciatic nerve -‐greater sciatic notch “spooned out” surface=fossa –iliac fossa Internal/opposite surface
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