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Psychology 1200: Classical and Operant Conditioning

by: Madalyn Notetaker

Psychology 1200: Classical and Operant Conditioning PHY 1200

Marketplace > Appalachian State University > Psychology > PHY 1200 > Psychology 1200 Classical and Operant Conditioning
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About this Document

These are class notes on module 21 and 22 of the psychology textbook.
Psychological Foundations
Jackie Belheumer
Class Notes
Psychology, Intro to Psychology, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, associative learning, learning




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madalyn Notetaker on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHY 1200 at Appalachian State University taught by Jackie Belheumer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Psychological Foundations in Psychology at Appalachian State University.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
Sunday, October 2, 2016 Psychology 1200 Learning: Classical and Operant Conditioning What is learning? - Learning is acquiring new information or behavior through experience • not innate (natural, inborn) - Results in relatives permanent change in behavior, knowledge, capability and attitude. Associative Learning - learning that involves two events occurring together. • ex. thunder and lighting, pen color & grading, voting location & behaviors - two types: classical and operant conditioning • classical = associate 2 stimuli • operant = associate behavior with consequence Classical Conditioning - Pavlov’s Dog • experiment observing dogs salivating before presentation of food and generalizing that response to a bell Unconditioned stimulus: food / Unconditioned response: salivation = before • conditioning • Conditioned stimulus( Neutral Stimulus): the bell / Conditioned response: salivation to sound of the bell = after conditioning - Examples in Everyday Life Fear Responses - ex. dogs or the dentist • • Drug Use & Overdose • Advertising - ex. sex appeal and beer 1 Sunday, October 2, 2016 • Chemotherapy & Taste Aversion - ex. patients get sick from chemo and eventually get sick overtime they go to a hospital to counteract this hospitals will try to tie this feeling of sickness to a taste of a lollipop rather than the hospital itself - High Order Conditioning • When conditioned stimuli are linked together to form a series of signals EX. conditioning the dog to both the bell and a flash of light • lengthier process - Extinction • When a conditioned response isn’t practiced in a while and weakens / disappears over time - Spontaneous Recovery • When an extinguished response reappears Relearning a conditioning • - Generalization • A conditioned response following stimulus similar to conditioned stimulus EX. experiencing fear from one dog / breed of dog and in result becoming fearful of all dogs - Discrimination • Opposite of generalization • Distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimulus EX. experiencing fear from one dog / breed of dog and in result becoming fearful of only that dog / breed of dog Operant Conditioning - Association btw. behaviors and consequence - Thorndike’s Law of Effect : behaviors by favorable consequences will be repeated while those followed by unfavorable consequences will be less likely 2 Sunday, October 2, 2016 • skinners box • shaping - training a dog to sit on a box by rewarding him each time he gets closer to completing the task Reinforcement - Encourages behavior - Can be primary or secondary - Positive (add) : adding desirable stimulus EX. receiving allowance for completing chores - Negative (subtract) : taking away unwanted stimulus EX. unbuckled seatbelt beeping stops when you buckle up - Schedules (variable schedules are seemingly most effective) Fixed Ratio • - specific number of response earns reinforcement EX. pick up three candies off the floor and you get reinforced • Variable Ratio - unpredictable number of responses earns reinforcement EX. pick three candies one day and another day you may have to pick up five in order to get reinforcement • Fixed Interval - reinforcement occurs at a specific time interval EX. weekly paycheck • Variable Interval - reinforcement occurs at a unpredictable time interval EX. pop quizzes 3 Sunday, October 2, 2016 Punishment - works to lessen behavior - Positive (add) : adding unwanted stimulus EX. spanking a child - Negative (subtract) : taking away a desirable stimulus EX. timeout 4


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