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by: Victoria Andreski

Personality MGT 4000

Victoria Andreski

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About this Document

Personality & Personality Tests
Organizational Behavior
Dr. Michael A Cole
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Organizational Behavior

Popular in Management

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Andreski on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGT 4000 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Michael A Cole in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Management at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
Personality Tests • Integrity tests—focus specifically on a predisposition to engage in theft and other counterproductive behaviors. – Integrity test scores are more strongly related to job performance than conscientiousness scores.   • Clear purpose tests—ask applicants about their attitudes toward dishonesty, beliefs about the frequency of dishonesty, endorsements of common rationalizations for dishonesty, desire to punish dishonesty, and confessions of past dishonesty. • Veiled purpose tests—assess more general personality traits that are associated with dishonest acts. • About one-third of Fortune 1000 organizations relies on, or plans to implement, some form of personality testing. • Research suggests that almost everyone engages in some form of faking — exaggerating your responses to a personality test in a socially desirable fashion. • Because everyone fakes to some degree, correlations with outcomes like theft or other counterproductive behaviors are relatively unaffected. The Effects of Faking on Correlations with Integrity Tests • Personality refers to the structures and propensities inside a person that explain his or her characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior. – Personality captures what people are like. – Traits are defined as recurring regularities or trends in people’s responses to their environment. • Cultural values, defined as shared beliefs about desirable end states or modes of conduct in a given culture, influence the expression of a person’s traits. • How does personality develop? – Nature – Study of identical twins – Genes • Nurture – Surrounding – Experiences The Big Five Personality Traits • Conscientiousness - dependable, organized, reliable, ambitious, hardworking, and persevering. – Conscientiousness has the biggest influence on job performance. – Conscientious employees prioritize accomplishment striving, which reflects a strong desire to accomplish task-related goals as a means of expressing personality. • Agreeableness - warm, kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful, and courteous. – Prioritize communion striving, which reflects a strong desire to obtain acceptance in personal relationships as a means of expressing personality. • Beneficial in some positions but detrimental in others. – Agreeable people focus on “getting along,” not necessarily “getting ahead.” • Extraversion - talkative, sociable, passionate, assertive, bold, and dominant. – Easiest to judge in zero acquaintance situations — situations in which two people have only just met. – Prioritize status striving, which reflects a strong desire to obtain power and influence within a social structure as a means of expressing personality. – Tend to be high in what’s called positive affectivity — a dispositional tendency to experience pleasant, engaging moods such as enthusiasm, excitement, and elation. • Neuroticism - nervous, moody, emotional, insecure, and jealous. – Synonymous with negative affectivity — a dispositional tendency to experience unpleasant moods such as hostility, nervousness, and annoyance. – Associated with a differential exposure to stressors, meaning that neurotic people are more likely to appraise day-to-day situations as stressful. – Associated with a differential reactivity to stressors, meaning that neurotic people are less likely to believe they can cope with the stressors that they experience. – Neuroticism is also strongly related to locus of control, which reflects whether people attribute the causes of events to themselves or to the external environment. • Tend to hold an external locus of control, meaning that they often believe that the events that occur around them are driven by luck, chance, or fate. • Less neurotic people tend to hold an internal locus of control, meaning that they believe that their own behavior dictates events • Openness to experience - curious, imaginative, creative, complex, refined, and sophisticated. – Also called “Inquisitiveness” or “Intellectualness” or even “Culture.” – Openness to experience is also more likely to be valuable in jobs that require high levels of creativity, defined as the capacity to generate novel and useful ideas and solutions. – Highly open individuals are more likely to migrate into artistic and scientific fields. • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (or MBTI) evaluates individuals on the basis of four types of preferences: – Extraversion (being energized by people and social interactions) versus Introversion (being energized by private time and reflection). – Sensing (preferring clear and concrete facts and data) versus Intuition (preferring hunches and speculations based on theory and imagination). – Thinking (approaching decisions with logic and critical analysis) versus Feeling (approaching decisions with an emphasis on others’ needs and feelings). – Judging (approaching tasks by planning and setting goals) versus Perceiving (preferring to have flexibility and spontaneity when performing tasks). DISC Profile • Dominance – relating to control, power and assertiveness • Influence – relating to social situations and communication • Steadiness – relating to patience, persistence, and thoughtfulness • Conscientiousness – relating to structure and organization Holland’s RIASEC model—suggests that interests can be summarized by six different personality types: • Realistic: Enjoy practical, hands-on, real-word tasks. • Investigative: Enjoy abstract, analytical, theory-oriented tasks. • Artistic: Enjoy entertaining and fascinating others using imagination. • Social: Enjoy helping, serving, or assisting others. • Enterprising: Enjoy persuading, leading, or outperforming others. • Conventional: Enjoy organizing, counting, or regulating people or things. Cultural Values • Employees working in different countries tended to prioritize different values, and those values clustered into several distinct dimensions. • Ethnocentrism—a propensity to view one’s own cultural values as “right” and those of other cultures as “wrong.” • Conscientiousness affects job performance. – It is a key driver of what’s referred to as typical performance, reflecting performance in the routine conditions that surround daily job tasks. – Tend to be more committed to their organization. • An employee’s ability is a key driver of maximum performance, reflecting performance in brief, special circumstances that demand a person’s best effort.


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