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AMTO 170A Class Notes Week 2

by: Savannah Way

AMTO 170A Class Notes Week 2 ATMO 170 A1

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Savannah Way

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About this Document

Notes cover temperature, heat transfer, radiant energy, radiation, and seasons.
Intro to Weather and Climate
Dr. Mullen
Class Notes
intro to weather and climate
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Way on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ATMO 170 A1 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Mullen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.


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Date Created: 10/06/16
WEEK 2 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT TRANSFER Temperature: quantity that tells us how hot or cold something is relative to some set standard value; average speed of the atoms and molecules  Not all atoms and molecules are moving at the same speed Kinetic Energy: energy of motion  The temperature of any substances is a measure of its average kinetic energy Absolute zero: atoms and molecules possess a minimum amount of energy and theoretically no thermal motion  The atmosphere contains internal energy, which is the total energy stored in its molecules Heat: is the energy in the process of being transferred from one object to another because of the temperature difference between them  In the atmosphere, heat is transferred through conduction, convention, and radiation Kelvin scale: absolute scale, temperature scale from the absolute zero point of a substance (1824-1907) °C = 5/9 (°F – 32) K = °C + 273 Latent heat: the (hidden) heat energy required in order to change the phase of a substance Sensible heat: latent heat energy that reappears when the vapor condenses back into liquid water  Evaporation is a cooling process  Condensation is a warming process Conduction: transfer of heat from molecule to molecule within a substance (needle on top of a candle) Convection: transfer of heat by the mass movement of a fluid such as water and air (evaporation) as large bubbles of warm air rise and transfer heat energy upward Thermals: rising air bubbles Convective circulation: thermal “cell”, is produced in the atmosphere when the warm, rising air cools Advection: transfer of properties by horizontally moving air BRIEF REVIEW  The temperature of a substance is a measure of the average kinetic energy of its atoms and molecules  Evaporation (liquid to vapor) is a cooling process that can cool the air, whereas condensation (vapor to liquid) is a warming process that can warm the air  Heat is energy in the process of being transferred from one object to another because of the temperature difference between them  In conduction, transfer of heat by molecule-to-molecule contact, heat always flows from warmer to colder regions  Air is a poor conductor of heat  Convection is an important mechanism of heat transfer, as it represents the vertical movement of warmer air upward and cooler air downward  The horizontal transfer of any atmospheric property by the wind is called advection RADIANT ENERGY Radiant energy: radiation, energy transferred from the sun to the body  Radiation travels in the form of waves that release energy when that are absorbed by an object Electromagnetic waves: magnetic and electrical properties to the radiation waves Micrometer: equal to one-millionth of a meter (10 m) Photons: radiation particles that are discrete packets of energy  All things no matter how big or small emit radiation. The energy originates from rapidly vibrating electrons, billions of which exist in every object  The wavelengths of radiation that an object emits depends primarily on the object’s temperature  Objects that have a high temperature emit radiation at a greater rate or intensity Visible region: radiation ranging from 0.4 and 0.7 waves that reach the eye and stimulate the sensation of color  Radiant energy that reaches the eye is called visible light  The longest wavelengths of visible light correspond to the color red  Wavelengths longer than red (0.7) are called infrared  Solar radiation is called shortwave radiation  Earth’s radiation is referred to as longwave (or terrestrial) radiation RADIATION – ABSORPTION, EMMISION, AND EQUILIBRIUM  Not all object radiate energy, they absorb it as well  When an object emits and absorbs energy at equal rates, its temperature remains constant Blackbody: any object that is a perfect absorber and a perfect emitter Selective absorbers: objects that selectively absorb and emit radiation, such as gases in the atmosphere Atmospheric window: wavelength range when the wavelengths of emitted energy pass upward through the atmosphere and out into space BRIEF REVIEW  All objects with a temperature above absolute zero emit radiation  The higher an object’s temperature, the grater the amount of radiation emitted per unit surface area and the shorter the wavelength of maximum emission  The earth absorbs solar radiation only during the daylight hours; however, it emits infrared radiation continuously, both during the day and the night  The earth’s surface behaves as a blackbody, making it a much better absorber and emitter of radiation than the atmosphere  Water vapor and carbon dioxide are important greenhouse gases that selectively absorb and emit infrared radiation, thereby keeping the earth’s average surface temperature warmer than it otherwise would be  Cloudy, calm nights are often warmer than clear, calm nights because clouds strongly emit infrared radiation back to the earth’s surface  It is not the greenhouse effect itself that is of concern, but the enhancement of it due to increasing levels of greenhouse gases  As greenhouse gases continue to increase concentration, the average surface air temperature is projected to rise substantially by the end of this century SHORTWAVE RADIATION STREAMING FROM THE SUN Solar constant: value of the solar energy received on a surface perpendicular to the sun’s rays appears to remain fairly constant at nearly two calories on each square centimeter each minute Scattering: distribution of light deflected in all directions from a small object Albedo: percent of radiation returning from a given surface compared to the amount of radiation initially striking that surface WHY THE EARTH HAS SEASONS Northern Hemisphere  Summer solstice: astronomical first day of summer in the Northern Hemisphere (June 21)  Autumnal equinox: astronomical beginning of fall in the Northern Hemisphere (September 22)  Indian summer: unseasonably warm spell in the middle of autumn especially in the eastern two thirds of the United States, may last from few days to a week or more; occurs when a large high-pressure area stalls neat the southeast coast  Winter solstice: astronomical first day of winter in the Northern Hemisphere (December 21) nights are long and days short  Vernal equinox: astronomical beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere (March 20) Southern Hemisphere  Summer solstice: December 21  Autumnal equinox: March 20  Winter solstice: June 21  Vernal Equinox: September 22


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