Bio 110, ch 6
Bio 110, ch 6 Bio 110
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Notetaker on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 110 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Dr. Phyllis Griffard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology I in Biology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Ch 6 metabolism Metabolism: changes bonds, converts energy, and moves electrons o Anabolism- makes something bigger o Catabolism- breaks down or makes it smaller Energy: capacity to do work/ stored in molecular bonds o Exists as kinetic energy (energy of motion) or as potential energy (relies on position or structure to determine energy) o needs to be able to move, make, destroy things o In chemical reactions Delta G<0 is exergonic and releases energy Not spontaneous and requires ATP (releases phosphate bond) Used to synthesize Delta G>0 is endergonic and requires energy Spontaneous and releases energy Used to hydrolyze molecules o Laws of thermodynamics Nothing created nor destroyed Every reaction increases entropy (disorder) Entropy also is said to be randomness of molecules in a system Reactions only transform energy o Free energy is available energy to promote change or do work o Enthalpy is energy that cannot be harnessed that is usually released as heat o Gradients and polymers (ATP) store energy Enzymes: protein catalyst in living things o Can be used over and over until it's wore out Then it is broken down and reused for another protein synthesis o Genes code for proteins o Enzymes provide activation energy needed to begin reactions Lower activation energy needed Delta G is not affected by enzymes o Kinase: category of enzymes that add a phosphorus o The induced fit of enzymes makes molecules stick to the enzyme to enhance catalyzation of reaction o Coupled reactions occur when one reaction feeds off another reaction that has just taken place o Enzymes position reactants together to change the environment o Active site is where the reaction takes place o Substrate: reactants that bond to the active site o Enzyme substrate complex: both the active site and substrate working together o Most enzymes require energy May also require prosthetic groups( permanently attached to the enzyme) Cofactors- inorganic ion that may be temporarily needed for the reaction Coenzyme- temporarily bonds to aid enzyme in reaction o Enzymes directly affected by their environment Temperature, pH, salt levels can determine whether or not a protein will function or become denatured o Enzymes can be controlled by the use of reversible or irreversible inhibitors Competitive inhibitors bind to the active site to prevent other substrates from coming in temporarily Noncompetitive inhibitors bind to the allosteric site, ultimately changing the protein’s shape which inhibits funtion permanently
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