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Child Psych Week 7

by: Katie Truppo

Child Psych Week 7 Psych 300

Katie Truppo
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

Language development
Child Psychology
Sabrina Lynn Thurman (P)
Class Notes
Child, Psychology
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Truppo on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 300 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Sabrina Lynn Thurman (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.

Similar to Psych 300 at UT

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Date Created: 10/06/16
September 26. 2016 Auditory Development Cont. Preferential looking Used to test vocabulary understanding Noting whether infants look at one stimulus over another Sensitivity to rhythms Responsiveness to more complex rhythms in later infancy Important for music and language learning Other Senses Smell Detect mother/breast milk Taste Starts in utero Breastfed vs. bottle fed: Flavors impact breast milk Role of Perceptual Development Intermodal Perception / Sensorimotor Integration Senses are all separate and need to be integrated The capacity to integrate several sensory inputs Ex: Coordinating touch and vision Perceptual Differentiation The ability to distinguish information coming via each particular sensory modality Perceptual Learning Learning regularities in the world from the objects and events they perceive Ex: Discriminating language sounds/objects Perceptual Narrowing 6-12 months Ability to distinguish basic sounds outside native language declines Improved ability to perceive slight differences in sounds in native languages Same process occurs with visual information Able to differentiate between human faces Decreased ability to differentiate between non-human faces and faces from different racial or ethnic groups Experience and perceptual development Experience is very important for maintaining perceptual capacities Sensory deprivation Serious detrimental consequences for the developing infant Chapter 7 Chapter Outline Theories of language development Language development in infancy Language development beyond infancy The functions of language Theories of Language Development Biological Theory Brain Structures and Language Broca’s Area Portion of the cerebral cortex that controls expressive language Left frontal region Expressive Aphasia Loss of the ability to speak fluently Wernicke’s area Portion of the cerebral cortex that controls language comprehension Left temporal region Receptive aphasia Loss of the ability to comprehend speech Critical periods of time to learn a language, easier when young Linguistic Theory (Chomsky) 6 Universal elements of language Phonology Syntax Grammar Semantics Pragmatics Morphology Universal Grammer Innate system of categories and principles Child is "biologically prepared" Evidence Overregularizations (kids using improper grammar while learning, cross cultural) Vocabulary spurt Learning Theory Shaping through reinforcement Imitation Cognitive Developmental Theory Continuing Piaget’s theory Advancement in thinking Classification skills Memory Statistical learning Social Interaction Perspective Motherese/Parentese (high pitch, singing tone when talking to baby) Turn taking Alternating vacuolization by parent and child Turnabout Element of conversation that requests a response from the child Recast Repetition of a child’s utterance along with grammatical corrections Expansion Repetition of a child’s utterance along with a more complex form September 28. 2016 Language Development in Infants Prosody Patterns of intonation, stress, and rhythm that communicate meaning in speech Infant-directed speech (parentese) Simple, repetitive, high-pitched speech of caregivers to young children Includes many questions Statistical Learning The ability to discern the probability that one word follows another Cooing Vowel-like utterance Babbling Consonant- vowel utterances Canonical Babbling Repetition of simple consonant-vowel combinations Vocabulary Spurt Period of increase in vocab First Words Underextension Application of a label to a narrower class of objects than the term signifies Overextension Tendency to apply a label to a label to a broader category than the term usually signifies Receptive Language Ability to comprehend spoken speech Productive Language Meaningful language spoken or otherwise produced by an individual Fast-mapping Process through which the context in which the child hears words spoken provides the key to their meanings Joint Attention Times when both the parent and the child are mutually engaged in an activity Helps children learn language Telegraphic Speech Two or three phrases (Where go? No bath, etc.) From about 18-24 months Overregularization Inappropriate application of grammatical rules to words that require exceptions to the rules September 30. 2016 Language Development in Infants Cont. Language and Bilingualism and Cognition Recall Categorizing Problem solving More verbalizations and cognitive control Language and... Self-Regulation Ability to control own behavior and thinking Private speech Children’s vocalized speech to themselves that directs behavior Inner speech: form of private speech Cultural Socialization Helps children learn cultural values and beliefs Ex: In some communities, children are aged based on accomplishments Chapter 8 Chapter Outline Theories of Cognitive Development Concept development Attention Memory Problem-solving skills Executive function Theories of Cognitive Development Cognition Thought processes and mental activities including: Attention Memory Concept formation Problem solving Evident from early infancy and onward Piaget’s Theory Of Cognitive Development Piaget: Genetic epistemologist (studied development of how we know what we know) Adaptation and organization Schemas Assimilation and Accommodation Stage Age Description Thought is based primarily in Sensorimotor Birth to 2 action Preoperational 2 to 7 Thought becomes symbolic in form Concrete Operational 7 to 11 Stimuli are physically present 11 to 15 Thought is abstract and Formal Operational hypothetical Sensorimotor Stage: Birth to 2 years Thought is based primarily in action Means-ends behavior Separation of self from external environment Object concept and size constancy Object permanence Deferred imitation Preoperational Stage: 2 to 7 years Thought becomes symbolic in form Semiotic function Ability to use symbols Egocentrism Viewing the world from your perspective only Inability to apply logic to solve conservation problems because of centration Centration: Focus on one aspect of problem and ignore others Concrete Operational Stage: 7 to 11 years Logic can be applied only in the presence of specific objects or events Capable of performing mental actions, called operations Reversibility Decline in egocentrism Able to serate Formal Operational Stage: 11 years and beyond Thought is logical and abstract Hypothetical reasoning e.g., conducting a scientific experiment Systematic and complete approaches to problem-solving Idealism


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