Child Psych Week 8
Child Psych Week 8 Psych 300
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Truppo on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 300 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Sabrina Lynn Thurman (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
October 3. 2016 Theories of Cognitive Development Cont. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory Development must be understood in context of culture Formal and informal exchanges with others Scaﬀolding: Temporary aid provided by one person to support the learning of another person Zone of Proximal Development: Disparity between what a child can do with the assistance of others and what they can do alone Guided Participation: Tendency for adults to provide scaﬀolding to children so they can engage in nature activities Information- Processing Theory Views humans as having a limited ability to process information Limited space and resources Comparable to computers Multistore Model Information-processing model that describes a sequence of mental structures through which information ﬂows Sensory Register Memory store that holds information for very brief periods of time in a from that closely resembles the initial input Working (short term) Memory Short term memory store in which mental operations such as rehearsal and categorization take place Long term memory Memory that holds information for extended periods to time Dynamic Systems Theory Idea that many systems play a role in simultaneously impacting cognitive development Development of language, emotion, motivation, neurological growth and experience Concept Development Concept A set of information deﬁned on the basis of so0me general or abstract principle Result in greater eﬃciency in information- processing Properties of Objects Object permanence Size constancy, height, rigidity Physical causality A-not-B Error Children try to locate something out of habit/memory October 5. 2016 Attention Attention Span Sustaining attention on an activity Increases in the ﬁrst 6 years of life Increasingly complex activities Selective attention Ignoring irrelevant information Individual diﬀerences early on Memory Recognition Memory Ability to identify whether a stimulus has previously been encountered Ex: Multiple choice Recall Memory Ability to reproduce stimuli that one has previously encountered Ex: Short answer Episodic Memory Memory for events that took place at a speciﬁc time and place Semantic Memory Memory for general concepts/facts Not tied to speciﬁc event Explicit Memory Conscious recollection of a past event or experience Implicit Memory Non conscious recollections of how to do something behaviorally Memory Span Number of stimulus items that can be recalled after brief interval of time Memory Strategy Mental activity, such as rehearsal, that enhance memory performance Processing Speed: Rapidity with which cognitive activities are carried out Metamemory The child’s understanding of his or her own memory Problem Solving Planning Depends on ability to represent real object with symbols Understanding steps needed and ﬂexibility to change With age, planning improves and becomes more ﬂexible Parental guidance Increasing attention to future events Transferring Skills Generalize previously learned skills to new situations Requires child to asses similarities and diﬀerences in events/tasks Executive Function Executive Function Part of information-processing system Coordinates various component processes in order to achieve some goals Connects past experiences with present actions Ex: Planning, organizing, remembering, cognitive control
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