History Study Guide 1
History Study Guide 1 SPAN 201-B
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bria Notetaker on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPAN 201-B at Carson-Newman University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Hispanics in the U.S. II in Spanish at Carson-Newman University.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Napoleon brought electricity to Paris which is how they got their name “The City of Lights” Paris created the world first department store Le Bon Marché o It was 16,000 sq/ft o Offered a wide range of goods at low prices Napoleon focused on infrastructure o He focused on building canals and railroads o France had the biggest railroad system in the 19 century Morril Land Grant University 2. Socialism o Claude Henri de SaintSimen was the first socialist He divided Paris into two groups Parasitesphilosophers & lawyers Doers“workers” He believed it was socialisms job to fix the problems of the city o The problem with socialism, is that not everyone is going to be equal o People try to build a Utopian socialism (heaven on earth) Robert Owen is the first Utopian socialist His Utopia was called New Harmony His group of people didn’t believe in sex so there was only one generation of socialist 3. Communism o Karl Marx created communism b/c he hated religion due to his father’s conversion o He believed that religion was the “ Opium of the masses” o Believed religion held people back from what was going on in their lives o The middle class rose over the upper class & there were more factory workers than owners He believed that if workers were to get rid of religion they could come together to overthrow their bosses and create a new communism He thought that individualism was bad & so was private ownership— everything needed to be for the community and not for oneself in this “communist society” o Marx was supported financially by Fredrich Engels whose father owned a lot of factories o 1871, a commune was created by Paris people In this commune, everyone got paid equally for their labor o France begins to lose the Prussian war, so the people create a communist commune. This commune only consisted of people from Paris. Outsider did not approve so they invaded Paris & kill all of the Paris communists o Prussian war helped German nationalism 4. Nationalism/ Romanticism o German nationalism was all about Language Culture o German nationalist ask what makes a german, German Which fed into romanticism o Romanticism & Nationalism combine o Richard Wagner was famous for Der Ring Nibelungen How Germany was created 5. Anarchism o Created by Mikhail Bakunin Believed the govt. would take away peoples freedom and the best way to handle that was through violence. Anarchist use assassination as their tool of choice o Between 18851914 Anarchist had killed 300 political leaders 1 : Alexander II They tried to bomb his carriage, he lived, got out of the carriage and they bombed him again and he died 2 : Sissi was the most beautiful woman in Europe She was married to Franz Joseph She was stabbed with a pin knife while she had on her corset so she could not feel it, but when she got home and undressed she rd bled out & died 3 : William McKinley A man wrapped his hand & stabbed him **4 : Franz Ferdinand The biggest change of the Industrial Rev. was free time o The pastimes became Bull Baiting Cock Fighting o Freak shows became popular The most popular freak was Joseph Merrick or the elephant man Freaks were considered punishments by God People went from thinking the worse about freaks to believing they were just handicapped b/c of Fredrick (?) o Sports were introduced Soccer In America, baseball William J. Leggett created football Men & women start to live together before marriage o Got the freedom to pick their partner An increase in babies before marriage increases Separate spheres come into play o The men worked while the women stayed at home & watched the babies and took care of the homes The Cult of domesticity says that women needed to stay home if her husband had a good job o Mrs. John Sandiford says that a woman doesn’t need too much independence She should act as though she needs her husband so he would want her more For actual romance o People wrote love letters o People wanted to like their partners o Couples were more romantic with one another The Knife of Sugar “Imperialism” The drive to get colonies came from o The need for resources that Europe didn’t have Copper Cotton Rubber Tin The Enlightenment convinced whites were the best o White man’s burden came along b/c the white people are the best, so everyone should be like them First major colony was in India o It was the most important colony o Before the British, the Indians were ruled by the Mughals Mughals were the wealthiest in the world They were Muslims and had language, culture, & religious diversity Mughals got money from spices & cotton trade & taxation from the population o Portuguese wanted to control the spice trade and convert India to Christianity o The British and French take over trade Private companies have the power, not the govt. They run off of a high risk high reward policy French & British East Indian Company (EIC) o Located in Bengal o They were private companies but they were allies with the French & British company o A part of the Parliament o Has a private army, which was allied with the British army o Army structure: at the top= white men, 95% of the army were Indian men called Sepoys o Both EICs got to war because Charles II died o BEIC became rich but corrupt The British begin to believe that all of the Indians did not work, had no govt., and always had naked women around. They also believed Indians were ruled by ssomeone who has all of the power o **Oriental Despotism came by Europeans view of what India was—It is a combination of all of the British’s ideas into one. The British believed the Indians needed saving so they made changes to their education, religion, & culture: o Created British styled schools Education Created to make and educated middle class Teaches the enlightenment, capitalism, & poetry o Tried to convert Indians into Christians Religion o Tried to make people accustomed to British culture Culture By teaching them sports (i.e. polo & cricket) British army switches to new riffles o The gun powder was sealed in its containers with pork & beef fats o B/c 95% of the EIC army were Hindu & Muslim, the Sepoys saw this as disrespectful so they went into Mutiny Mutiny lasted for 14 months (ended 1858) o Sepoys marched in Cawnpore o They killed British men, women, & children British took revenge to the sepoys o Sepoys were forced to lick blood from the streets and then they were hung o Indians were tied to canons & then the canons were shot The leader of the EIC, Canning, thought the Indians should still be killed but not tortured. British gets rid of the EIC & officially take over India— o EIC employees are allowed to take over new positions with the colonial government British EIC & British army work together to get rid of the mutiny The End of the EIC British sees the war of 1857 as a war of savages & people who are rejecting the way of British life. British take away the EIC Monopoly o EIC can no longer tax o They cannot be a private company 1858 India becomes a formal colony under British govt. control This new colony starts putting down new railroads everywhere in order to move British soldiers faster th By 1900, India has the 4 largest railroad system in the world To pay for these railroads, the British taxed the Indian people, but Indians were not allowed to use the railroads To increase tax profits, British forced farmers to only grow cash crops= crops only grown for profit, not eating o These crops were cotton and poppy B/c farmers weren’t allowed to make edible crops, Indians starve to death o Over 5.5 Million people died from starvation The British believed the famine would cure itself British believed they should stop trying to help the Indians because the Indians were “not ready” o So they took away the schools & religion British believed Indians were a conservative group After 1857, the cast system was pushed onto the Indians o Controlling who they could marry. This was in the effort to make sure the mutiny wouldn’t happen again 18201830: British spent a lot of time trying to help women by outlawing o child marriage o suttee belief that if a woman truly loves her husband, when he dies and they burn his body she will jump into the pit of fire After 1858, they stopped trying to help women o British were only concerned with Childbirth Prostitutes giving STDs to the British soldiers But British eventually stopped caring about this too. British tried to make a “whites only” civilization—but there were too many Indians o British went to the Himalayas to create the white only civilization but would bring Indians as servants Oriental despotism: o British attempt to become oriental despots o The Viceroy doesn’t control anything, but he is the “eyecandy” for the Indians o 1901 Queen Victoria was crowned empress of India o British men and women gave themselves traits but would give Indians the opposite trait (i.e.: British thought they were hardworking; therefore, Indians were lazy) o To prove how great they were, the British men would hunt Indian Nationalism o First wave of nationalism was b/c people wanted more autonomy—they didn’t want all of the power but they home rule they didn’t have all of the power but they could make decisions on local issues o The first wave consisted of mostly Hindus which created a division btwn Hindu & Muslim nationalists Imperialism Scramble for Africa happens during the 1800s Europeans called Africa the “Dark Continent” o They believed nothing was in Africa Europeans only settled the coastlines of Africa b/c when they explored further they died Why Imperialism? o Need for natural resources b/c of the Ind. Rev. o Europeans believed they had oriental despotismsuperiority They wanted natural resources without paying for them They wanted the “precious jewels” o Diamonds o Gold o Rubies o Sapphires Imperialist believed that having colonies would help them to make/sell resources They wanted to make sure Africans only bought from them so they created colonies Cecil Rhodes was a British merchant who was the wealthiest merchant o Believed Britain should stretch the entire length of Africa from Cairo to Cape Threats that push for the scramble: o Americans announce that they control the hemisphere Europeans believed that the only way they could get colonies was to go to the one untouched place—Africa Ideological Fuel: o People are ok with taking over entire colonies Three tools to make imperialism happen o 1. Introduction of the steam boat: African rivers are hard to navigate and the rivers don’t always go where they needed them Africans were forced to disassemble boats, carry them to the next available sailing area, and then reassemble the boat o 2. Intro to the maxim machine gun British army fought Sudanese army with only 300 people with machine guns and killed/injured 10,000 Sudanese o 3. Quinine British loved drinking gin & tonic which had quinine in it, they realized that whoever drank it a lot, would be more prone to not die from malaria Germany threatens to throw out the power system. o Britain & France believed that their only way to get back their balance of power was to have colonies They didn’t want to fight where they lived Colonies inspired nationalism & patriotism Idea of Imperialism would make people not realize how bad their lives were Killing things makes Europeans feel like they have power 3 C’s of Imperialism o Commerce: people need to know how to buy & sell o Civilization: British believed civilization was painful but worth it o Christianity: was an important talking system, and they wanted to show how loving Jesus was and could be Every missionary in Africa o You cant separate the Christian from the culture that surrounds them Ideas cannot be forced from the theology Europeans believed Africans needed to make their families like the British Missionary believed that inheritance should come from the men & men shouldn’t have multiple wives King Neopold II of Belgium wanted to take control of Africa Otto von Bismarck was the Chancellor of Germany o He was anticolonial/imperial o Believed politics was blood Von Bismarck calls for the Berlin Conference o Which set off the scramble of Africa Diplomats conversed about how they could split up Africa without starting a war There were no Africans there & none of the delegates had ever been to Africa Germany, France, Britain & U.S. were the most important countries @ the conference Diplomats split up Africa by drawing lines which put people were always together apart & people who should never be together were now living together Neopold got control over the Belgian Congo French & British get a lot of areas Ethiopia and Liberia stay independent after the conference o Italy tried to control Ethiopia but Menelik II had gun and went to war with the Italian army—The Italians lost o Liberia was independent because the U.S had power over them The U.S. sent freed slaves from America to Liberia Before the 1500s The Age of Exploration came about when the Europeans went to explore places they had never been Zheng He’s exploration took place in order to o Take pilgrimage to Mecca o Sail around South East Asia to prove the power of the Chinese His purpose was to show people the Chinese’s power instead of forcing people to see it. Zheng was not interested in coming to America b/c he wanted to show off the places he knew existed. He was given a giraffe, which he thought was a unicorn. After Zheng He’s died, his ship was burned. Europeans believed o Mermaids existed o They didn’t like empty spaces on maps (i.e: oceans) o The ocean was boiling hot Europeans used stars to navigate during explorations Vasco de Gama was the first European to get to India o He sought out Christians In 1492, Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean on a shorter route. o He ended up sailing to the Caribbean (which he thought was Asia) o He collected what he thought were spices o He brought back silver and cinnamon Silver established the global economy He decided to use silver in order to get the real spices. Silver changed the trade between Europe & Asia Europeans introduced small pox (very deadly disease) o Americans had no resistance towards the disease, so 90% of the Americans died from the European disease Europeans discovered potatoes , which changed their future. o Potatoes became the source of food for pilgrims o Potatoes made Europe food secure o Because potatoes are very nutritious, pilgrims became the healthiest and well fed people in Europe Americans introduced syphilis to the Europeans Slavery was established to mine their crops and new found objects o 16 Million Africans were shipped to South America to keep things up and to make production cheaper for Europeans. Europeans, then, started to fight over religion and God, but they came to agree on Catholicism. The Pope dom o He fundraised $$ from the Europeans to fix the Vatican by selling indulgences He believed Indulgences buy sin Indulgences can bring your dead relatives out of purgatory in order for them to go to heaven Martin Luther did not believe that his speech would become a popular debate because of the printing presswhich allowed things to be typed and printed Martin Luther was obsessed with his own sin o He created the 95 statements on how to fix the Catholic Church called the 95 Feces He did not believe that his statements would become such a debate because of the printing press which allowed things to be typed out and printed The Holy Roman Empire, where he lived was not holy nor was it an empire o It consisted of states and principalities o Each state was ruled by a prince 30 years of war came about from the Catholic & Roman princes fighting o 50% religion & 50% politics Then, Edward died, which left Mary to be queen (b/c she was the oldest) Mary’s one goal was to make England catholic In order for her to make England Catholic, she: o Burned protestants—hints Bloody Mary o Married Philip II from Spain She ties the marriage to diplomatic things She submits to her husband & tells England to submit to Spain She turned everyone Protestant b/c she tried to turn everyone Catholic After 5 years she died, the, Elizabeth took the thrown. o She wanted to fix what Mary did She created an umbrella church Protestants and Catholica shared one church By the 1700s Europeans were done fighting over religion They, then, turned to science o Christian Theology said the earth was heavy so it “rolled” to the center of the universe Galileo said that he said that he saw the universe through his telescope & that earth was NOT at the center Heliocentric Theory said that the sun was at the center of the universe & the earth orbits around itThe correct theory Isaac Newton discovered the theory of gravity, which explains the Heliocentric Theory o He used calculus to explain gravity o He came up with the color prism After Newton, Europeans believed that the earth could be explained through equations o They were going to use this to make the world better The Enlightenment in France came about b/c of scientific achievement Montescue came up with checks & balances for the govt. o It said that no one power in the govt. should be more powerful than another Women were not included in the Enlightenment o It was made by middle class white men for middle class white men The Enlightenment became the new religion for Europe (France). o Toleration for all religions o Started the French fighting one another o France tried to make an Enlightenment world a reality Economic Theory of Capitalism comes from the Enlightenment o Capitalism says any regulation is bad for the economy/environment Adam Smith believe that a persons’ value in society came from what they did (job) & he believe that society would fix itself b/c of capitalism Mercantilism says that everything is in short supply, so the people should hoard gold and natural resources o This is the opposite of capitalism The Fallout of the French Revolution 3 Atlantic Revolutions: o American Revolution o French Revolution o Italian Revolution French Revolution o 1789 Revolution starts b/c of politicians that don’t agree with one man having all the power. The French no longer want a constitutional monarch b/c they want a Republican o The French believed that in order to make them pure again they must kill people o Rain of Terror French killed Marie Antoinette & 15,000 other people The French go to a civil war B/c Marie was Austrian, Austria declared war on France Napoleon restored peace to France o He was a member of the French Army o Invaded Italy which made him wellknown o Napoleon wants to take over the world so he persuaded the French to believe that he would restore them if he can dictate them for life or the Emperor of France. Napoleon made France absolutist like Louis XVI The rest of Europe did not like Napoleon trying to make them absolutist Napoleon conquered and invaded many countries surrounding France His biggest threat was Great Britain o Their navy is powerful b/c GB is an island, which makes it harder for people to fight them o GB believes they should have twice the army force of their enemies o Oct. 15 The Battle of Cathalgor – Napoleon goes to GB to fight their navy The British win GB loses their….? Napoleon is no longer allowed to invade GB anymore Napoleon fights against the Prussians, Russians, British, & Austrians Napoleon wanted to create truly French men & women with national (same) identity o 1802: established state secondary schools to teach French said that everyone has to speak the same French o 1808: the first public university o 1804: Napoleonic code Nationalism begins with Napoleon so that everyone has the same identity & knowledge Napoleon turns domestic o b/c he questioned the revolution o Napoleon divorces his wife to get a child o Napoleon & Marie Louis have a son Having a child was the only way he thought he could solve all of his problems Which turned out not to be true Napoleon wanted to control Black Sean so he: o He invaded Russia, June 1812 o He made it to Moscow by September o Napoleon takes over the capital of Russia He waited for 6 weeks for Russia’s capital to surrender’ Russia gets behind the French army to block off the army turning back Russia then burns everything that is behind the army the further they entered Russia Which left the French army with no food The French and Russia go to war The French loose Napoleon leaves the war to go back to war—leaving his army in Russia alone Napoleon gets his power taken away Klemons von Metternich takes charge o He wanted to deal w/ Russia o He makes amends with the French o Gets rid of Napoleon by exiling him to the Island of Elba o To deal with France, decide to become a monarch again by putting Louis the XVII (Louis the XVI’s brother) in charge This decision was unpopular but at least they would be a constitutional monarch Napoleon isn’t happy in exile o He escapes from Elba in 1815 to France o Louis XVII sends army to get Napoleon Instead of capturing him, the army switches back to their allegiance with Napoleon o Napoleon goes to Paris (?) o Napoleon ruled for 100 days British defeats Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo o They exile him to the Island of St. Helena Napoleon does in 1821 from ulcers Balance of powers system that emerges from Congress of Vienna Industrial Revolution Manchester became the capital of the Industrial Revolution Britain is the originator of the Ind. Rev.—they have a 50 year head start on machines B/c of the Ind. Rev., Britain becomes the wealthiest nation in the world o The U.S. takes over Britain b/c of their wealth **4 factors that led to the Ind. Rev: o Population growth o Agricultural Revolution o Expansion of Trade o Openness to Innovation Population Growth o Because there’s not enough food, people must die= Massive die off Farmers try to find a way to break the Malthuism trap Agricultural Revolution o The Enclosure Movement: The Dutch introduce a new technique that says to get rid of small farms and instead have three big farms. Each set aside for specific crops Each field rotates—two w/ crops & one w/ fallow (no crops) o This required less farmers o The farmers move to Manchester & provide labor to make the Indus. Rev. work Expansion of Trade o Britain becomes wealthy because they control the tea & sugar trade The downside to this is that the trade relied on the ships Ships could sink= No trade= No $$ o Britain created insurance b/c of the risks created with their trade Creating insurance caused an increase of noble businessman o Men from all classes partook in trade which makes the trade business boom Openness to Innovation Canales are their best transportation for their trading businesses 5 things must happen for the Ind. Rev. o Mass Production o New machines o Iron o Steam Engine o Telegraph Mass Production o Josiah Wedgewood becomes the wealthiest man in Europe for figuring out an efficient way to make Chinese pottery quickly He created the first assembly line He wanted to copy the pottery that the Chinese were creating Josiah opened a factory in 1759 He divided the labor—each person would make a different piece of each pottery= assembly linethis created fast production He made $3.4 Billion New Machines o The Ind. Rev. thrived on the British need for cotton o Cotton was new & more “fancy” o A political problem came about when sheep farmers were losing business for their wool due to cotton. The farmers went to Parliament to start a taxation on the import of cotton This made cotton buyers start to buy raw cotton and make the finished cotton themselves. o The Hargreaves’s spinning Jenny made the cotton process quicker & cheaper The cotton process would normally take 500 hours but now takes 80 hours b/c of the machines Iron o Iron was the primary tool used to make things o Britain needed iron but there was a shortage o They decided to use charcoal to make iron o Abraham Darby made “coke” or alternative charcoal, which is coal that has been baked to make iron Helps mass produce iron o 1784 Henry Cort invents things to make iron easier o Britain produces the most iron than anywhere else o Britain created the first iron bridge o Interchangeable parts came from the mass production of iron Steam Engine o Originally created by Tomas Newcomen He wanted to pump water from coal mines so he created the steam engine The steam engine was very good at using goal o James Watt’s steam engine was better than the previous steam engine The new steam engine was Less dense It could cool itself The sun & planet gear moved in a back/forward motion so transportation and movement could now be created with the engine o Britain used the steam engine to create the first steam boat. 1838 the SS Great Western was the first boat to cross the water with a steam engine—opened up new ways of transportation o Stephenson created the first train which moved at 16 mph Called The Rocket It went from Charleston to Manchester The train’s launch was a big deal *William Huskisson died on the day of the launch when he fell onto the train track, so the train cut his head off o 1830 Manchester to Liverpool o By 1838 almost all of Britain had trains o The train stations were like cathedrals for trains Victorian Station was created to honor the train o B/c of the train a normal trip from Chicago to New York was 48 hours Telegraph o The battery was used to provide electricity and power for the telegraph which transported Samuel Morse’s Morse code (series of dots and dashes) over long distances. o Britain laid the first transatlantic cable o The British laid telegraph cables everywhere During the Ind. Rev. Life expectancy decreased to 24 years old Britain’s life expectancy was 40 years old There was a pushback toward the Revolution o The first to pushback were the Britain Luddites created by Nedd Ludd Luddites believed the production of machines needed to decrease They liked technology but they did not want to be replaced by them They marched and posted notes in the streets Carried sledgehammers to hit the machines and they dressed like Nedd’s wife The marched through Red Wood Forest The prices of food increased The Luddites protested this also There was no police force so the military was sent in to stop the protesting In Europe, the protestors were called Sabots (France & Belgium) o They destroyed machinery to protest o The Sabots used their shoes to break the machines, which is where we get the word sabotage Birth of 5 Political Ideologies (isms) o Liberalism/ Utilitarianism o Socialism o Communism o Romanticism o Anarchism Liberalism/ Utilitarianism o *Liberalism believed in the freedom of the people, constitution, & it wanted limits on monarchy **Favored freedom of concitious (?), freedom of trade, & protection of private party **Wanted to limit power n political & religious authorities o Liberalism emerged in Britain b/c of the increasing of protests o The biggest push for change came after Peterloo o *Protests for corn laws started along with wages & the conditions of living— people pushed for Parliamentary reform o The corn laws were passed by the British to make sure people were eating only British grown food Made the cost of food more expensive for the poor o 2% of electorate had the right to vote o British are called to break up the protest People die and get injured o Britain has a radical overthrow of their govt. because people are unhappy with life o Any reporter who tried to report Perterloo would get arrested This makes people more angry o Liberalism provided enough reform to keep Britain stable o After Peterloo, people wanted change o Liberalism becomes more popular o Parliament is known for its reform o Earl Gray Is the new Prime Minister He pushes for the Reform Act of 1832 This reform act redrew the districts and expanded suffrage o As long as you were a man, own land, & paid taxes you could vote Provides the most reform ever Rotten boroughs (voting districts) don’t get to vote for Parliament b/c they had no representatives There is no such thing as private voting Pocket boroughs only has one voter o mostly estate Britain created a police force o *Their job was to stop mischief but not to figure out who committed the crimes. o Were given blue coats so that they could be identified as police o This was the beginning of the modern police force o The police were known as Bobbies b/c they answered to Bobby 1837Birth of a new monarch o Queen Victoria reigned from 18371901 o She was so important that her reign was called the Victorian Age o She was a Utilitarian but she also was a conservative (liberal & conservative) o Believed everything you should have a purpose b/c she was utilitarian o Victoria was married to Prince Albert He died in 1861 She mourned him for the rest of her life—she wore nothing but black She set the tone for how other women should mourn the loss of their husband This caused a lot of rules to be put into play These rules were mainly for the middle class o Victoria & Albert had 9 children & 42 grandchildren She married off all of her family—which made a lot of Europeans be related back to her This is how she became the grandmother of Europe Reforming the Work Place o Consisting of child labor Children were considered the most valuable in work place *Factories had large machines so the kids could fit into small spaces which the children could fix *Children are also cheaper Got paid 1/10 of what adults did *children were easily manageable b/c labor unions became an increase by adults less likely to push for higher wager o There is no sense of childhood or adolescents o Factory owners would get children from orphanages They wouldn’t get paid but would get food, clothes, somewhat of a bed o Average child works 1214 hours a day o 1833 the English Factory Act of 1833 limited the hours children could work & it forced children to get an education after work hours o Parliament then changed to land mines instead of coalParliament Mines Act of 1842 The Parliament reform said that the worker could not be under 10 years old o Children become important for mining b/c The mining shafts were too small, so only children could fit in them to open/close the trap doors Women & children were used to push the coal back to the surface of the shafts Children also were used to separate the coal at the surface Urbanization starts but there are no urban areas o London doubles in size w/in 100 years o London had no Electricity Housing regulations Plumbing Water o Each apt. building would share water w/ 3 or 4 other buildings o Families only took 23 baths a year o Apartments became disease pools o The streets were filled with raw feces o In London, the feces water would trickle down into the River Thames Which created diseased from people drink feces water 1842 British Parliament gave Edwin Chadwick power to create reform o He decided to provide a sewage system & clean water
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