RAT 5 BIOL1302/10025
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Ali on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL1302/10025 at University of Houston Downtown taught by Rachel Hudspeth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Biology 2 in Biology at University of Houston Downtown.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
RAT 5 29.3 The main constituents of a plant 80- 90% of a plant is water and 99 % of the remaining dry mass consists of carbohydrates such as cellulose. Macronutrients are nine of the essential elements, because plants require them in relatively large amounts. Micronutrients are the remaining eight essential elements, because plants need them in only tiny quantities. 29.4 Plants associate with bacteria and fungi, some soil bacteria engage in mutually beneficial chemical exchanges with plant roots. Others enhance the decomposition of organic materials and increase nutrient availability. Rhizobacteria are known as plant –growth- promoting rhizobacteria which enhances plant growth by a variety of mechanisms. Some produce chemicals that stimulate plant growth. Others produce antibiotics that protect roots from disease. Others absorb toxic metals or make nutrients more available to roots. Rhizosphere is the soil layer that surrounds the plant’s roots, rhizobacteria are soil bacteria with large populations in the rhizosphere. Mycorrhizae are mutualistic associations of roots and fungi that play a major role in plant nutrition. The host plant provides the fungus with a steady supply of sugar. Fungus increases surface area for water. 33.3 Three modes of feeding are Herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores. Herbivores dine mainly on plants. Carnivores eat mainly other animals. Omnivores consume animals as well as plants or algae. The essential nutrients are carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Some molecules are fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Malnutrition is an inadequate intake of essential nutrients and deficiency in sources of chemical energy. Undernutrition is a diet that fails to provide adequate sources of chemical energy. 33.4 Four main stages of food processing are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination. Ingestion is the enzymatic breakdown of large molecules. Absorption is uptake of nutrients by cells. Elimination is the passage of undigested materials out of the body in feces. Some mechanisms of feeding are substrate feeders, bulk feeders and fluid feeders. Bulk feeders eat large pieces of food. Substrate feeders are animals that live in on their food source. Fluid feeders suck nutrient rich fluid from a host. Intracellular digestion is hydrolysis of food inside vacuoles. Extracellular digestion is the breakdown of food in compartments that are continuous, have gastrovascular cavity or alimentary canal.
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