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PSY 101 week six notes

by: Andrej Sodoma

PSY 101 week six notes PSY 101

Andrej Sodoma
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About this Document

These notes cover intelligence and the beginning of intuition.
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Elizabeth Nelson
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrej Sodoma on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Elizabeth Nelson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Arizona State University.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
PSY 101 week 6 notes on intelligence: Opening Question: Is music a language?  I. Language: is a communication system consisting of a set of meaningful symbols and a set of rules of combining those symbols into large meaningful units. II. The morphemes of music do not have a specific meaning hence it is not a language. Music conveys an emotion but not a specific idea so it is not a language. III. Music affects our biology by raising our dopamine levels, which can reduce cortisol. Music triggers the amygdala causing a reward loop.   IV. Jack Panksepp: looked at the phenomenon of chills connected with sadness and loss. Spurred by experimentation of playing pink Floyd for chickens.  A. Found that cortisol increases with heavy metal and decreases with classical music for animals.  Q: Musical Intelligence?  I. It involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms.  II. Howard Gardner A. Thought that musical intelligence runs in almost its own structural form.  B. Multiple intelligence theory, there are eight types of intelligence.  1. Logical: math and analytical thinking.  2. Musical 3. Kinesthetic/bodily: movement 4. Visual 5. Naturalist: knowing things about the world around you.  6. Interpersonal: people skills 7. Intrapersonal: look inward and make sense of things.  8. Verbal/linguistic: reading, writing, and speaking.  9. Existential: this one was discovered later but it means the ability to grasp larger concepts.  C. Criteria of intelligence i. It has to be able to exist on its own. ii. Set of operations iii. Developmental history: the specific type of intelligence has to have always developed faster.  iv. Evolutionary plausibility: the evolution of our behavior into this type of intelligence.  v. Support from psychological tasks vi. Support from psychometric findings: studies on the intelligence to reveal if the person has it.  vii. Encoding in symbolic system.  D. This theory branched into a multiple intelligence curriculum III. Waterhouse A. She criticized the multiple intelligence curriculum i. She thought that by not pushing them to try subjects that are difficult for them then they will not become better at them.  ii. It did not have enough evidence. It also could not be tested.  iii. Talent does not mean intelligence  iv. Believed intelligence was a personal attribute that is centered on the skill of information processing, problem solving, and adapting to new or changing environments. She adhered to traditional intelligence.  Q: What is intelligence testing? I. History A. Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon: were French scientists that had to make a test to assess intelligence for the government in order to cut costs in education. i. They made a test to compare mental age vs. chronological age. B. Temin standardized the test by making (mental age/chronological age) x 100 C. Wechsler intelligence scales are what are used now.  i. Put scores on subscales  ii. Changed tests for different ages  iii. IQ scores. Average is in­between 100­120 one standard deviation is 15.  II. What makes an intelligence test good? A. Reliability: the test has to be consistent.  B. Viability: the test has to measure what it should.  III. Evolution of what intelligence was thought to be. A. Spearman thought that intelligence is generalized intelligence. B. LL Thurston thought that intelligence is reasoning, memory, visualization, etc. C. Raymond   Cattell   thought   that   generalized   intelligence   has   two   forms crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence.  D. Schneider and McGraw  i. Thought there was crystalized and fluid reasoning. ii. Low general fluid reasoning means someone is thrown by minor details and cannot use new information in new circumstances. High Gf means   someone   can   transfer   knowledge   and   can   learn   well independently.  iii. Low general crystallized intelligence means someone views current events as new, has simple thoughts, and has concrete operational thought. High Gc means good memory, good set way of thinking, precise distinctions.  E. Howard Gardner: believed there are multiple intelligences. F. Robert Sternberg: triarchic theory i. Componential: analytical intelligence  ii. Experimental: creative intelligence  iii. Contextual: practical knowledge  G. Daniel Coleman  i. Emotional intelligence is important in order to live a meaningful life.  ii. Emotional intelligence is consisted of self­awareness, emotional self­ management, empathy, and social skills.  ­ Self awareness: acutely aware of your own emotions ­ Emotional self management: how you cope in different situations ­ Empathy: Understanding other people’s emotions and identify the emotion.  ­ Social   skills:   how   well   you   function   with   other   people   in situations.  Q: What do public figures that have swayed mass public opinion have in common?  I. Jochen Menges  A. The awestruck effect: Hitler was able to strategically express emotions in order to get them to feel instead of thinking. A leader that gives a speech with emotion the audience was more likely to not question the content.  II. Joanne Martin A. Interviewed industry leaders. They said they break people’s hearts in order to sell a product.  III. Dana Joseph  A. People that acquire attention to emotions of others, the higher the emotional intelligence the more successful you will be.  IV. Adam Grant A. Understanding emotion in others while managing emotions in oneself is the key to emotional intelligence as an asset. So genuine emotional intelligence is sustainable, manipulative EI does not work.  B. Higher EI means not necessarily helpful. More likely to challenge the status quo and suggest change without creating conflict or attacking others.  V. Biological influence on intelligence  A. People that are more intelligent have a thicker cortex because it is more developed due to more synaptic connections and myelination.  B.  75% of the variance in intelligence observed in the population can be attributed to genetics.  VI. Flynn effect A. Positive   and   negative   influences   on   intelligence   are   due   to environmental   influences,   these   are   differences   based   on socioeconomic status.  Q: What is Intuition? I. Daniel capon is the main researcher. It is a process that everyone is capable of it is comprised of instinct, unconscious processes, creativity, big­picture, insight oriented, not sequential or linear.  II. Components of intuition  A. Innate capacity: general intelligence  B. Physiology: triggering factors that cause intuition to kick in taking in a field of information then ask what if.  C. The process itself: silent and unconscious D. Genetic   inheritance,   environmental   background,   personality, experience and expertise all influence intuitive capacity.  IV. Intuitive   thought:   arises   from   an   emotion,   beyond   rational   explanation,   is influenced by experiences, and cultured assumptions.  V. Analytical thought: methodical systematic way of thinking. 


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