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Physical Geography Chapter 14 Lecture Notes

by: Ashley Trecartin

Physical Geography Chapter 14 Lecture Notes GEOG 110

Marketplace > Southwestern Michigan College > Science > GEOG 110 > Physical Geography Chapter 14 Lecture Notes
Ashley Trecartin

GPA 3.45

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These notes cover what we went over in class the last two sessions with volcanoes and faults. They also include the two diagrams from the book dealing with anticlines, synclines, horst, and grabens.
Physical Geography
Mr. Thomas
Class Notes
Physical, geography, volcanos, anticlines, synclines, horst, graben, Diagrams
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Trecartin on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 110 at Southwestern Michigan College taught by Mr. Thomas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Physical Geography in Science at Southwestern Michigan College.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
Chapter 14 In­Class Notes Shield volcano (broad, not steep) Low viscosity (mafic magma, high temp lava­basalt rock) Have a summit crater (>1 km) or a caldera (>1 km) Eruptions occur from summit and long fissures on the flanks Lava travels a long way, often through lava tubes Mauna Loa (Hawaii) Pahoehoe: lava with a surface that is smooth or ropey looking, is fast moving  Aa: lava with a rough jagged surface: slow moving Fumaroles (gas vents) are common on all volcanoes Cinder Cone (steep, not very tall, short­lived, quickly erode away) made of loose pyroclastic  fragments (tephra) mainly lapilli Paricutin (Mexico), Stromboli (Italy) Composite cones (strata volcano)—steep, tall, long­lived, spectacular Made of alternating layers of lava and pyroclastic (mainly ash) Most large and famous are composite cones Most in “ring of fire” are composite cones Mount. St. Helens, Fujiyama, Kilimanjaro, Etna, Vesuvius, Rainier, Masan These are extreme hazards (lava flows, mud flows, hot gases, landslides) Plug Domes Vicious silica­rich magma pushed into a vent Dome shaped summit and jagged blocks make up cone on steep sloping sides Lassen Peak, CA Calderas Large depression Crater Lake Yellow Stone Rim of volcano Plutonisim and Intrusion Igneous intrusions (plutons) Classified by size, shape, and relations to surrounding rocks Stock: irregularly shaped intrusions Batholith: an area less than 100 km squared, mostly granite Laccolith: mushroom­shaped intrusion that develops where molten magma pushes its  way between pre­existing horizontal layers Sill: intrusions between rock layers without bulging upwards, solidifies into horizontal  sheet of intrusive rock. Dike: igneous intrusion with a web­like shape Volcanic Neck: vertical igneous intrusion that solidified in the vent of a volcano Distribution of Endogenic Process High relief: plateaus and mountains, mountain ranges Low relief: ground level, flat Endogenic: endo means interior, features inside earth’s surface Exogenic: features outside of the surface Mountain Building 3 Principle Tectonic Forces 1. Compressional Tectonic Forces a. Push crustal rocks together, squeezing b. Bends rock layers c. Anticlines: up folds of compressed rocks d. Synclines: down folds of compressed rocks e. Faulting is the slippage or displacement of rocks and fracture where  movement happens (breaks in the rock) 2. Tensional Tectonic forces a. Fault b. Pulls parts of the crust away from each other c. Horst: a fault block that moved upwards between two fauts d. Grabben: a fault bck that slides downwards between two faults 3. Shearing a. Slip and slide b. Horizontal c. San Andreas Fault d. Earthquakes


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