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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by gtan51097 on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:830:310 at Rutgers University taught by Dr. Estelle Mayhew in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Neuropsychology in Psychology at Rutgers University.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
9/26/2016 Circle of Willis Allows for backup supply if one of the arteries is blocked Collateral circulation Major Arterial Supply of Princ Structures Frontal o Lateral surface Middle cerebral artery o Medial surface Anterior cerebral artery o Inferior surface Middle and anterior cerebral arteries Temporal o Lateral surface Middle cerebral artery o Medial surface Middle and posterior cerebral arteries o Inferior surface Post cerebral artery Parietal o Lateral surface Middle cerebral artery o Medial surface Anterior cerebral artery Occipital o All surfaces Posterior cerebral artery Cerebellum: receives arterial supply coming off the basilar artery Mid Cerebral Artery (MCA) Likely to stroke Major damage Stroke early basal ganglia as well as hemispheres; huge chunk of function Blood-Brain Barrier Endothelial cells (inside layer) of brain capillaries have tight junctions particles can’t get in between Astrocyte feet cover endothelial cells second layer of protection Both limit what molecules get across barrier Small uncharged molecules can pass Other molecules get across w/ active transport Stops molecules that make it to your blood fr/ also getting to neurons Absent BBB Circumverdricular organs o 3 ventricle: SFO and OVLT o 4 vent ventricle: area postrema measures toxin Lecture 4: Spinal cord, spinal nerves Spinal Cord Runs through spine Spine made of vertebrae o Anterior discs o Posterior hole where spinal cord runs roots and nerve come off it o Spinous process muscles Vertebrae ID by area and # 31 spinal cord segments o 8 cervical (neck) segments o 12 thoracic (chest) segments o 5 lumbar (lower back) segments o 5 sacral (bottom of spine) segments o 1 coccygeal segment End of cord, multiple nerves that travel down before they exit Dermatomes (“skin cuts”) = body segments innervated by spinal nerves; not just skin, also muscles and joints Higher more and more white matter Lumbar Puncture: Sampling CSF for Diagnostic Purposes AKA spinal tap Area made numb by local anesthetic and a small needle is passed between bones of the spine and posterior to the end of the SC No risk of paralysis Done at lumbar to avoid hitting spinal cord Motor Neuron of PNS End of axon is unmyelinated and goes to muscle fiber Innervates muscle fiber Multipolar Individual axon is microscopic 1 micrometer Leg: 1 axon to 1000 muscle fibers Eye: 1 motor neuron to less than 100 muscle fibers Efferent Cell body in spinal cord Sensory Neuron of PNS Sends afferent info to spinal cord Tactile stimulation: touch, pain, thermal Sent by axon to cell body; nucleus not in SC Cell body in dorsal root ganglion Unipolar Dorsal root ganglion Holds sensory neurons Dorsal and ventral horns SC Injury Compress, rip, cut SC damage varies Depends on level (how high up) and extent (how many axons are cut/ruptured/torn) Damage worsens higher up 3 major causes: Motor vehicle accidents, accidents working, sports Paraplegic: loss of control over lower limbs Quadriplegic/tetraplegic: loss of control over all limbs Above C3 lose function in diaphragm (muscle that helps breathe), need ventilator C4 lose shoulders and biceps Damage must be below C7 to function independently Christopher Reeve: C1-C2 learned to wiggle toes and fingers, and raise right hand, distinguish hot/cold, sharp/dull on body Extent: not every axon will be severed Research into regeneration, cell replacement, limit # axons damaged, retrain NS to take over lost functions 9/28/2016 Lecture 5: Cranial Nerves, Anatomy Sympathetic NS In charge of getting ready for action, “fight or flight”, beyond your control Pupils dilate so take in info, salivation stops because digestion is not a priority, 30% of blood takes care of digestion, stimulates adrenaline and sweating, relaxes airwaves so more oxygen and muscles can work to flee Thoracic and lumbar Ex: run into a bear Parasympathetic NS Pupils constrict, increase saliva, heart rate does back to normal “Chill system”, more stimuli to intestines Part of autonomic NS and runs with spinal nerves SC injury damage to ANS Cranial and sacral Structure of Vertebrate NS Medulla: o Just above SC and could be regarded as enlarged extension of SC o Several tracts cross (decussate) here (crossing of fiber tracts) o Breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing and sneezing Cranial nerves o Functionally homologous to spinal nerves (like SN except they’re in the brain o Provide both somatic (bodily) and visceral sensory and motor innervation of head and neck (makes muscles move), below run by spinal nerves o Traditionally numbered I through XII in rostrocaudal sequence by Thomas Willis I. Olfactory: smell, moves into forebrain; telencephalon; purely sensory; bottom of brain II. Optic nerve: purely sensory; receive info that comes through eyes; vision; light reflected off surface, hits retina, changes in receptor and sends to brain; goes to diencephalon III. Oculomotor: comes from midbrain IV. Trochlear: comes from midbrain V. Trigeminal: “triplets”, splits into 3 branches [lower jaw (mandibular), upper jaw (maxillary), and ophthalmological (eye sockets and forehead)]; sensory nerve, senses sensations on face; motor function jaw muscles for chewing and swallowing; pons VI. Abducens: pons, eye movements VII.Facial facial mimicry, convey emotions, salivation, dilation of head blood vessels, taste for part of tongue; pons VIII. Statoacoustic: sensory, info from hearing; auditory and acoustic names even though auditory and vestibular; vestibulocochlear; info on position in relation to horizon; IX. Glossopharyngeal: “tongue;” back of throat; posterior taste and sensations from throat, speech X. Vagus: “wandering”, parasympathetic of digestive tract; biggest part of cranial part of parasympathetic NS; mixed sensory and motor but mostly autonomic NS (ANS) XI. Accessory: controls neck and shoulder movements; com XII.Hypoglossal: under tongue, controls tongue muscles, speaking, eating Control of eye movements 3 cranial nerves N IV trochlear “pulley”: only runs superior oblique N VI “leads away”: lateral rectus N III “muscle of the eye”: other 4 muscles and eyelid raiser, pupil constriction (ANS), and lens accommodation (ANS) Hindbrain o Medulla o Pons Bridge Activity for arousal and readiness Reticular formation o Cerebellum o Caudal portion of brain Metencephalon o Pons o Cerebellum Balance, “little brain,” sits above brain stem, many deep folds 3 functions 1) Flocculonodular lobe: contains vestibulocerebellum; regulate balance and eye movement 2) Spinocerebellum: regulate body and limb movements 3) Cerebrocerebellum: higher level cognitive functions, shift attention; 10% of brain volume but has half the neurons; 40x more axons going in than out; big computational center for checking stuff, making sure things are correct for motor orders given by brain Mesencephalon o Midbrain Tectum: roof; superior colliculus and inferior colliculus (swellings) Tegmentum: middle of midbrain Substantia nigra: gives rise to dopamine-containing pathway