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Week 3

by: gtan51097

Week 3 01:830:310


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About this Document

Notes from the week of 9/26/2016. Sorry they're late!
Dr. Estelle Mayhew
Class Notes
circle, willis, arteries, blood-brain, barrier, spinal cord, cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal, spinal nerves, injuries, CRANIAL NERVES, Sympathetic, Parasympathetic, vertebrate, olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, statoacoustic, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by gtan51097 on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:830:310 at Rutgers University taught by Dr. Estelle Mayhew in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Neuropsychology in Psychology at Rutgers University.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
9/26/2016 Circle of Willis  Allows for backup supply if one of the arteries is blocked  Collateral circulation Major Arterial Supply of Princ Structures  Frontal o Lateral surface  Middle cerebral artery o Medial surface  Anterior cerebral artery o Inferior surface  Middle and anterior cerebral arteries  Temporal o Lateral surface  Middle cerebral artery o Medial surface  Middle and posterior cerebral arteries o Inferior surface  Post cerebral artery  Parietal o Lateral surface  Middle cerebral artery o Medial surface  Anterior cerebral artery  Occipital o All surfaces  Posterior cerebral artery  Cerebellum: receives arterial supply coming off the basilar artery Mid Cerebral Artery (MCA)  Likely to stroke  Major damage  Stroke early  basal ganglia as well as hemispheres; huge chunk of function Blood-Brain Barrier  Endothelial cells (inside layer) of brain capillaries have tight junctions  particles can’t get in between  Astrocyte feet cover endothelial cells  second layer of protection  Both limit what molecules get across barrier  Small uncharged molecules can pass  Other molecules get across w/ active transport  Stops molecules that make it to your blood fr/ also getting to neurons Absent BBB  Circumverdricular organs o 3 ventricle: SFO and OVLT o 4 vent ventricle: area postrema  measures toxin Lecture 4: Spinal cord, spinal nerves Spinal Cord  Runs through spine  Spine made of vertebrae o Anterior  discs o Posterior  hole where spinal cord runs  roots and nerve come off it o Spinous process  muscles  Vertebrae ID by area and #  31 spinal cord segments o 8 cervical (neck) segments o 12 thoracic (chest) segments o 5 lumbar (lower back) segments o 5 sacral (bottom of spine) segments o 1 coccygeal segment  End of cord, multiple nerves that travel down before they exit  Dermatomes (“skin cuts”) = body segments innervated by spinal nerves; not just skin, also muscles and joints  Higher  more and more white matter Lumbar Puncture: Sampling CSF for Diagnostic Purposes  AKA spinal tap  Area made numb by local anesthetic and a small needle is passed between bones of the spine and posterior to the end of the SC  No risk of paralysis  Done at lumbar to avoid hitting spinal cord Motor Neuron of PNS  End of axon is unmyelinated and goes to muscle fiber  Innervates muscle fiber  Multipolar  Individual axon is microscopic  1 micrometer  Leg: 1 axon to 1000 muscle fibers  Eye: 1 motor neuron to less than 100 muscle fibers  Efferent  Cell body in spinal cord Sensory Neuron of PNS  Sends afferent info to spinal cord  Tactile stimulation: touch, pain, thermal  Sent by axon to cell body; nucleus not in SC  Cell body in dorsal root ganglion  Unipolar Dorsal root ganglion  Holds sensory neurons  Dorsal and ventral horns SC Injury  Compress, rip, cut  SC damage varies  Depends on level (how high up) and extent (how many axons are cut/ruptured/torn)  Damage worsens higher up  3 major causes: Motor vehicle accidents, accidents working, sports  Paraplegic: loss of control over lower limbs  Quadriplegic/tetraplegic: loss of control over all limbs  Above C3  lose function in diaphragm (muscle that helps breathe), need ventilator  C4  lose shoulders and biceps  Damage must be below C7 to function independently  Christopher Reeve: C1-C2  learned to wiggle toes and fingers, and raise right hand, distinguish hot/cold, sharp/dull on body  Extent: not every axon will be severed  Research into regeneration, cell replacement, limit # axons damaged, retrain NS to take over lost functions 9/28/2016 Lecture 5: Cranial Nerves, Anatomy Sympathetic NS  In charge of getting ready for action, “fight or flight”, beyond your control  Pupils dilate so take in info, salivation stops because digestion is not a priority, 30% of blood takes care of digestion, stimulates adrenaline and sweating, relaxes airwaves so more oxygen and muscles can work to flee  Thoracic and lumbar  Ex: run into a bear Parasympathetic NS  Pupils constrict, increase saliva, heart rate does back to normal  “Chill system”, more stimuli to intestines  Part of autonomic NS and runs with spinal nerves  SC injury  damage to ANS  Cranial and sacral Structure of Vertebrate NS  Medulla: o Just above SC and could be regarded as enlarged extension of SC o Several tracts cross (decussate) here (crossing of fiber tracts) o Breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing and sneezing  Cranial nerves o Functionally homologous to spinal nerves (like SN except they’re in the brain o Provide both somatic (bodily) and visceral sensory and motor innervation of head and neck (makes muscles move), below run by spinal nerves o Traditionally numbered I through XII in rostrocaudal sequence by Thomas Willis I. Olfactory: smell, moves into forebrain; telencephalon; purely sensory; bottom of brain II. Optic nerve: purely sensory; receive info that comes through eyes; vision; light reflected off surface, hits retina, changes in receptor and sends to brain; goes to diencephalon III. Oculomotor: comes from midbrain IV. Trochlear: comes from midbrain V. Trigeminal: “triplets”, splits into 3 branches [lower jaw (mandibular), upper jaw (maxillary), and ophthalmological (eye sockets and forehead)]; sensory nerve, senses sensations on face; motor function  jaw muscles for chewing and swallowing; pons VI. Abducens: pons, eye movements VII.Facial  facial mimicry, convey emotions, salivation, dilation of head blood vessels, taste for part of tongue; pons VIII. Statoacoustic: sensory, info from hearing; auditory and acoustic names even though auditory and vestibular; vestibulocochlear; info on position in relation to horizon; IX. Glossopharyngeal: “tongue;” back of throat; posterior taste and sensations from throat, speech X. Vagus: “wandering”, parasympathetic of digestive tract; biggest part of cranial part of parasympathetic NS; mixed sensory and motor but mostly autonomic NS (ANS) XI. Accessory: controls neck and shoulder movements; com XII.Hypoglossal: under tongue, controls tongue muscles, speaking, eating  Control of eye movements  3 cranial nerves  N IV trochlear “pulley”: only runs superior oblique  N VI “leads away”: lateral rectus  N III “muscle of the eye”: other 4 muscles and eyelid raiser, pupil constriction (ANS), and lens accommodation (ANS)  Hindbrain o Medulla o Pons  Bridge  Activity for arousal and readiness  Reticular formation o Cerebellum o Caudal portion of brain  Metencephalon o Pons o Cerebellum  Balance, “little brain,” sits above brain stem, many deep folds  3 functions 1) Flocculonodular lobe: contains vestibulocerebellum; regulate balance and eye movement 2) Spinocerebellum: regulate body and limb movements 3) Cerebrocerebellum: higher level cognitive functions, shift attention; 10% of brain volume but has half the neurons; 40x more axons going in than out; big computational center for checking stuff, making sure things are correct for motor orders given by brain  Mesencephalon o Midbrain  Tectum: roof; superior colliculus and inferior colliculus (swellings)  Tegmentum: middle of midbrain  Substantia nigra: gives rise to dopamine-containing pathway


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