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Business Ethics: Class Notes on Chapters 1 & 2

by: Lindsay Fialli

Business Ethics: Class Notes on Chapters 1 & 2 PHL 203

Marketplace > Salem State University > Philosophy > PHL 203 > Business Ethics Class Notes on Chapters 1 2
Lindsay Fialli

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About this Document

These were the notes I took in class as we were discussing chapters 1 & 2.
Business Ethics
Dr, Krishna Mallick
Class Notes
business, ethics
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsay Fialli on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHL 203 at Salem State University taught by Dr, Krishna Mallick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Business Ethics in Philosophy at Salem State University.


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Date Created: 10/06/16
Class Notes on Chapters 1 & 2  Ethical theories help us decide what is the right thing to do in an ethical situation  Ethical Theories o Consequential (Teleological)  Ethical Egoism  Presented by Thomas Hobbes  Utilitarianism  Presented by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill o Nonconsequential (Deotological)  Categorical Imperative  Presented by Immanuel Kant  Theory of Prima Facie Duties  Presented by W.D. Ross  Ethical Egoism: long-term self-interest o Divided into personal and impersonal  Psychological Egoism: theory that we are self-interested by nature therefore we are only concerned with our self-interest o Argued by Thomas Hobbes  The opposite of an egoist is an alturist, which is one who sacrifices their self- interest to do things for others o An example of this kind of person would be Mother Teresa  Philosophers argue that we don't help others out of self-interest or the possible reward, like being a hero  Power Drive: one must do whatever they have to do to get what they desire  Hobbes argues that the government and its laws save our society from chaos that would ensue if everyone pursued their self-interest, as it is bound to conflict with the self-interest of others o This does not change our human nature  Egoists only to at others to see how they can use them to further themselves o No compromises o Conflicts of interests cannot be resolved  Utilitarianism: one makes a decision based on the maximum amount of people that would benefit from it o The goal is to achieve the greater good  Bentham's Utilitarianism: focuses on quantity of happiness o Uses cost benefit analysis to determine the sum of interests o Likely to not consider the quality of life and put your life above others  Mill's Utilitarianism: focuses on the quality of happiness o There are multiple levels of pleasure/happiness o Considers more factors o Things that cannot be measured like Bentham tries to do  Utilitarianism allows people to live together in peace o Based on democracy o The negative aspect is that it does not keep the minority in consideration  Minorities are sacrificed to benefit the majority  They are not hurt intentionally, but as an end result  Consequential theories overlook the minority o Can also be used to justify unjust actions  Nonconsequential theories states that our intentions or moral obligations are the means of our actions  Kant emphasizes duty o Imperfect Duties: doing duties with an end in mind o Perfect Duty: doing duties because they are the right thing to do  Only action of moral worth o Maxim: when an individual follows a universal law  Imperatives: things one is required to do  Categorical Imperative: everyone is required to follow the imperative in all situations  Hypothetical Imperative: the imperative thing to do depends on the situation/circumstance  Kant's view is very black and white Ford Pinto Case  Used cost benefit analysis to decide to sell the Pinto despite the safety issues  Was immoral because they tried to judge the cost of a human life, which can't be done


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