PSY 401 Week 5 Notes
PSY 401 Week 5 Notes PSY 401
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Toomey on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 401 at Colorado State University taught by Sara Ann Tompkins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
PSY 401 Lecture 9- The Birth of Modern Psychology Tuesday, September 20, 2016 12:33 PM Today: Empiricism, Associationism, Utilitarianism • The What/Who/Why of empiricism o What is empiricism? o Who? • Bacon • Locke • Hume o Empiricism applied • Psychophysics o 1879-- the beginning of empiricism • The "What" of empiricism o Epistemology again! o Experience= knowledge • A posteori knowledge o We bring together information through our sensory systems and this is how we accumulate knowledge o Advocate for induction-- we gather information through sensory and experience • "Who" of empiricism o Aristotle o The British Empiricists • Bacon • Locke • Hume o Francis Bacon • In the running for title "Father of Modern Psychology" • Methodological unity • Science is the key! § But he was not a scientist…oops • Life § Cambridge § Paris § London-- involved in practical Law as a lawyer in Parliament § Convicted of bribery while working in parliament § Died from stuffing a chicken with snow • This is how he is a scientist-- he got pneumonia from being outside in the snow studying animals (specifically a chicken) • Studied the effects of freezing on the preservation of meat • Our quest for knowledge can be successful § He saw value in Skepticism, but challenged that it i s flawed § Had no real methods but… • The "art of discovery may advance as discoveries advance" • Being like a spider (one end of the extreme) • Teamwork • What are you generating by yourself/with others? • Or like an ant (other end of the extreme) • We should be in bet ween the two animals, like a bee • Argued against rationalism and said we should be inductive and gather data • Idols § Common senses that divert us from our quest of knowledge • Impedements to knowing something § Idols of the tribe • Falling into the "because I said so" authority of things • As humans, we are okay with overly simple answers § Idols of the cave • We all have our own unique prejudices that blind us from our quest for knowledge § Idols of the marketplace • If you're given the answer, you stop seeking it • Normative § Idols of the theatre • We're too easily accepting of the dictates of authority • Society should support studies in( Advocates for naturalistic approaches to these topics): § Sleep and dreaming § Development from infancy to old age § ** § ** § ** o John Locke (1632-1704) • Life § Oxford § Natural sciences and medicine § Law and parliament (common theme) • Idea of Tabula Rasa § "white paper" § No innate ideas of morality and God • No knowledge of good or bad • No knowledge of God § Mind is a blank slate, you're born with nothing innate • What's important to empiricists is our mind -- therefore education is key • Locke & Psychology § Primary and secondary qualities (like Galileo) • Qualities of stimulus objects in the physical world • Primary quality: the structure, the given way it is • Secondary quality: the color, etc. it's unique to YOU, can be argued, dependent on the perceiver § Education is important over nature (** school psychology) § Children • Let children question everything, let them be educated • Fresh air, sleep, exercise • Brutal & corporal punishments for children at this time • Believed in hardening-- turning physical punishment into a disheartening way of punishing • Letting children cry it out, sleep on hard bed, be uncomfortable, etc. • Punishment is ok, but not as good as positive rei nforcement • Punishment isn't effective for path of education o David Hume- causality and REAL empiricism • Maintain that our experience is simply a chain of events • Very close to psychology • Life § Scottish- University of Edinburgh § Age 15 after leaving had a nervou s breakdown, sent to France to recover § "A Treatise of Human Nature"-- poor seller! • Had a good sense of humor; joked about his enemies (the Christians) • They hated him because his views differed from the church at the time § Unorthodox religious views • All of his books were on forbidden book list! • Experience is the primary subject matter of philosophy § Don't look to reason, but look to experience • Causality is a secondary quality; a psychological problem § Don’t rely on causality, it could drive you crazy trying to find the one true cause of everything; there is no one true cause • Mental life cannot be reasoned about… it's all about impressions & ideas § Ideas are fainter impressions of images § Relates everything back to experience § Our bundles of sensation are all physiology -- NOT a higher power • Discussion: What would these empiricists think of our current education system? • Empiricism and Education o Current calls for education reform • Too much standardized testing? • How should grades be u sed--should they even be used? • 40% of US earns college degree • Associationism o David Hartley-- 7 social ideas o Utilitarianism • Jeremy Bentham-- Laws & Psych (forensic today*) § Every law is an infraction of liberty § Greatest good for the greatest number of peopl e § Doubted innate knowledge § Life • Oxford • Law • Donated his body to science (unheard of at the time) • Principle of Utilitarianism § Psychological hedonism-- a sensation of feeling good… Freud's ideas perhaps stemmed from this? § Actions should be judged in terms of their social consequences for pleasure or pain • It's not right for it to be judged on the revolution of the crime § Cruel and unnecessary punishment should be avoided • What is justice? It's been based more on emotion -- our consequences based on our emotion, which isn't right § Utalitarianism applied • Is our current legal system stressful? Yes! • For jurors • For victims (children, elderly, mentally ill) • For lawyers, police officers • Therapeutic jurisprudence : legal system's role as a therapeutic agent • Bentham would call for this • Being smarter about effects on those in the room (court) • Being a support system for victims and perpetrator to be more understanding • Mary Wollstonecraft o Early pioneer in the battle for women's emancipation o Argued against essentialism o "If mind is white paper, education is permanent" o Life • Father gambled and drunk his inheritance • Informal education (women not educated formally) § Women seemed too "emotional" to be educated § "Ignorance is a frail based virtue" • Mary challenged women to not be frail-- to stand up for themselves and demand education • Teacher • Her second daughter married Shelley -- Mary Shelley: wrote Frankenstein • Train women in fields like medicine, law, etc. • Importance of empiricism for women across all fields • John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) o Modernizing empiricism o Looking at the mind in mechanical terms o Life • Coined term utalitarian (19th century liberalism) • Harriet got him interested in love (his lover) • Suffered severe depression • Used poetry and art to bring himself back (and love) o Didn't want to push psychology into a science by "biologizing it" • All states of mind are understood by other states of mind or by states of the body PSY 401 Lecture 10- The Birth of Modern Psychology (Philosophy) Thursday, September 22, 2016 12:31 PM Rationalism-- the "What" and the "Who" Today • What is rationalism • Who is rationalism o Descartes o Spinoza o Leibniz o Kant • Rationalism Applied • Discussion & 2 min paper • "What" o Rationalism comes from the Greek word "ratio" o Reason, Think, Reckon o Rationalist would use deductive reasoning o A priori knowledge • Independent of experience • Innate o Mind is active in selecting organizing and discriminating o Deductive arguments o The mind is active, rather than what Locke said (that it's passive) o Rene Descartes • I think therefore I am--"Cogito ergo sum" • In the running for father of modern psychology (as well as Bacon and Vives) • While he was doubting, he could not doubt that he was doubting, and therefore he was thinking § While he is thinking, he is existing • Dualist § The mind and the body are physically different entities § He believed they interacted in the pineal gland (believed that was the center of our brain) • Distinct senses; we can rely on the senses • Rationalist § Pushed his ability to doubt • Founder of modern philosophy • Mathematician** § He uses a mathematical approach to debate his messages § His use of math helps us to separate him from the field of philosophy • Emphasis on deduction and mathematical proof • The Descartes Method § He pushes the limits of his ability to doubt • Never accept anything as true unless it is clear and immune from doubt • If it's complex, break it down into different parts; divide all difficulties into as many parts as possible • Take comprehensive notes; complete and comprehensive reviews so nothing is omitted • Start with easiest and simplest elements and then proceed to the complex § Do you have your own method? Think about your individual method for approaching problems • Typically, methods help us • Always work on refining your method (can change and learn from others) o Baruch Spinoza • "God is one, that is, only one substance can be granted in the universe. Whatsoever is, is in God, and without God nothing can be, or be conceived." • He was excommunicated from his church (shunne d), which is a big deal • What motivates people? Fear § People in church fear Hell • If there is only God, according to Spinoza, then it's impossible that demonology would even exist (no Hell) § He is radically monist (one God one view) • Radical • Life § Jewish § Moved to Holland to escape Spanish persecution of Jews § Heidelberg • Ethics • Was offered very lush positions to be a philosopher, but refused them all because they meant compromising his monist views § Ended up working on lenses (low level society) and this is said to have led to his death--inhaling chemicals at work o Spinoza on Descartes and Religious Authority • Against Descartes ideas of Dualism • Founded the beginnings of a rebellion against religious authority § Against demonology • People cannot be possessed § Pantheist o Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz • The Great Unifier • Life § Influenced by father's death § Alchemist § Refused University positions in preference of working for Princes and Politicians (took the cushy life) • Unified… § Medicine & Science § Catholics and Protestants • Invented the first "Calculating Machine" § *Math is important again • Also struggling with Descartes idea of dualism o Leibniz-- Uniformitarianism • Perception vs. Appreciation § Monads and petites perceptions • The petite perceptions (sensory information) can interact to create the large things that we sense (for example the thunder we hear outside) • *Sensation and perception in today's psychology • We don’t attend to all the little bits of information, only what we need to attend to create our perceptions (this is today's view on it) § The mind and the body act like two clocks on the wall, separate from each other, working in sync but never interacting with each other • Nature Never makes leaps § Change is gradual and takes place over periods of time • Uniformitarianism • Changes in consciousness gradual not "jumps" o Immanuel Kant-- "Critique of Pure Reason" • He saw a reason between empiricism and rationalism (the grey area) • Life § Prussian (German Philosopher) § Unmarried § University of Koenigsberg (never left his hometown-- revered by the people there still) § Very strict upbringing focusing on religion • Dwelling on "heaven and hell" rather than life § "The starry heavens above me, the moral law within me" • All knowledge begins with experience § Similar to Locke-- Tabula Rosa (blank slate); so Kant does acknowledge empiricists • Knowledge begins with sensory experience § We must also have this rational mind outside of empiricism • Mind is active unlike Locke who said it was passive § Mind makes experience intelligib le, rather than just relying on senses o Kant-- Social Psychology • Theory of moral development § Heteronomy • Government from outside • Rule that governs moral behavior from the outside • Lay out the rules, tell us how to live § Autonomy • Leading to self-government • Ruling from within oneself • Discussion-- Autonomy o Are we hardwired to desire autonomy -- to defy being controlled? o Studies show restrictions on our autonomy is a great source of unhappines
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