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Psychology Chapter 4

by: Meaghan Raw

Psychology Chapter 4 PSYX 100S - 06

Meaghan Raw
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

These notes cover what was discussed and what was read in chapter 4 both in lecture and outside of class.
Intro to Psychology
Jacob Bloch
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology, Psychology, Cognitive Psychology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meaghan Raw on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYX 100S - 06 at University of Montana taught by Jacob Bloch in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology And Social Behavior at University of Montana.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 4  Sensation and Perception o Sensation­ stimulation of sense organs o Perception­ interpretation o Stimulus­ any detectable input from the environment o Traditional 5 senses  Touch, taste, smell, vision, hearing o Other senses  Kinesthesis­ position of body  Vestibular­ equilibrium/ balance  Thermoception­ temperature  Nociception­ pain  Interoception­ internal senses  Stimulus Detection o Psychophysics  The study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological  experience   Sensation begins with a detectable stimulus o Absolute threshold  Fechner  Minimum stimulus intensity that an organism can detect o Just noticeable difference  Smallest difference in intensity that you can detect  An absolute threshold is the just noticeable difference between no stimulus and a stimulus o In attentional blindness  Without focus/attention stimulus is not perceived o Sensory adaptation  Gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation  Body acclimates to it  Sensory Pathways o All sensory input (except for smell) travels through the thalamus  Sensation and Perception in the Brain o Parietal Lobe  Sense of ouch o Occipital Lobe  Visual signals are sent and processing begins o Frontal Lobe  Controls muscle movement o Temporal Lobe  Auditory processing  Visual system o Light­ electromagnetic radiation that travels as a wave o Amplitude­ brightness o Wavelength­ hue/color  Anatomy of the Eye o Lens­ focuses light on the retina o Pupil­ regulates the amount of light  o Optic Nerve­ fibers that exit the eye to connect to the brain o Retina­ absorbs light, processes images, and transmits them to the brain via the  optic nerve o Cornea­ where light first enters the eye o Photoreceptor cells­   Rods­ black/white, low light vision  Cones­ color and daylight vision   Fovea­ only cones, high visual acuity  Visual Processing o Dorsal Stream  The ‘where” pathway  Spatial awareness o Ventral Stream  The “what” pathway  Identification o Apperceptive Agnosia­ inability to perceive objects o Prosopagnosia­ difficulty perceiving faces o Depth Perception­ where objects are located in space  Informed by binocular cues o Monocular cues  clues about distance based on one’s eyes perspective  Motion parallax­ closer objects move faster  Pictorial depth­ evidence of distance  Linear perspective  Interposition­ object between you and an object farther away it is closer  Texture gradient  Relative size o Height in a Plane  The farther away something is the higher it will appear in sight o Feature Detection theory  Detect specific elements and assemble them into more complex forms  Bottom­Up processing  Data driven  Stimulus begins with sense receptors and works to the level of the  brain/mind  Problems o Context effects, expectation  Top­ Down processing  One progresses from the whole to its elements  Concept driven  Phi phenomenon   Illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid  succession  Sensory processing o Synesthesia  Senses are put together in contrast to the way that others do something o Stimulus  Sound­ vibrations of molecules passing through a medium  Amplitude­ loudness  Wavelength­ pitch  Anatomy of the ear o External ear­vibration of air molecules  Pinna­sound collecting core, funnels to the auditory canal o Middle ear­ moveable bones  Hammer, anvil, stirrup o Inner ear­ movement in fluid  Cochlea­ converts mechanical vibrations into waves in fluid and  membranes and transduces them to neural impulses  Gustatory system o Soluble chemical substances in the air o Taste cells in taste buds on the tongue receptors o 5 primary tastes: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami (savory)  o Taste preference is learned and is socially based o Taste aversion may develop evolutionary or in response to paining of food with  illness o Taste sensitivity is genetic  Non­tasters­ one­fourth amount of normal taste buds  Super­tasters­ more women  Olfactory system o Stimuli­ substances in the air that dissolve in the mucus in the nose o Receptors­ olfactory cilia o Not routed through the thalamus, but directly to the olfactory bulb 


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