Psychology Chapter 4
Psychology Chapter 4 PSYX 100S - 06
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meaghan Raw on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYX 100S - 06 at University of Montana taught by Jacob Bloch in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology And Social Behavior at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 4 Sensation and Perception o Sensation stimulation of sense organs o Perception interpretation o Stimulus any detectable input from the environment o Traditional 5 senses Touch, taste, smell, vision, hearing o Other senses Kinesthesis position of body Vestibular equilibrium/ balance Thermoception temperature Nociception pain Interoception internal senses Stimulus Detection o Psychophysics The study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological experience Sensation begins with a detectable stimulus o Absolute threshold Fechner Minimum stimulus intensity that an organism can detect o Just noticeable difference Smallest difference in intensity that you can detect An absolute threshold is the just noticeable difference between no stimulus and a stimulus o In attentional blindness Without focus/attention stimulus is not perceived o Sensory adaptation Gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation Body acclimates to it Sensory Pathways o All sensory input (except for smell) travels through the thalamus Sensation and Perception in the Brain o Parietal Lobe Sense of ouch o Occipital Lobe Visual signals are sent and processing begins o Frontal Lobe Controls muscle movement o Temporal Lobe Auditory processing Visual system o Light electromagnetic radiation that travels as a wave o Amplitude brightness o Wavelength hue/color Anatomy of the Eye o Lens focuses light on the retina o Pupil regulates the amount of light o Optic Nerve fibers that exit the eye to connect to the brain o Retina absorbs light, processes images, and transmits them to the brain via the optic nerve o Cornea where light first enters the eye o Photoreceptor cells Rods black/white, low light vision Cones color and daylight vision Fovea only cones, high visual acuity Visual Processing o Dorsal Stream The ‘where” pathway Spatial awareness o Ventral Stream The “what” pathway Identification o Apperceptive Agnosia inability to perceive objects o Prosopagnosia difficulty perceiving faces o Depth Perception where objects are located in space Informed by binocular cues o Monocular cues clues about distance based on one’s eyes perspective Motion parallax closer objects move faster Pictorial depth evidence of distance Linear perspective Interposition object between you and an object farther away it is closer Texture gradient Relative size o Height in a Plane The farther away something is the higher it will appear in sight o Feature Detection theory Detect specific elements and assemble them into more complex forms BottomUp processing Data driven Stimulus begins with sense receptors and works to the level of the brain/mind Problems o Context effects, expectation Top Down processing One progresses from the whole to its elements Concept driven Phi phenomenon Illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession Sensory processing o Synesthesia Senses are put together in contrast to the way that others do something o Stimulus Sound vibrations of molecules passing through a medium Amplitude loudness Wavelength pitch Anatomy of the ear o External earvibration of air molecules Pinnasound collecting core, funnels to the auditory canal o Middle ear moveable bones Hammer, anvil, stirrup o Inner ear movement in fluid Cochlea converts mechanical vibrations into waves in fluid and membranes and transduces them to neural impulses Gustatory system o Soluble chemical substances in the air o Taste cells in taste buds on the tongue receptors o 5 primary tastes: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami (savory) o Taste preference is learned and is socially based o Taste aversion may develop evolutionary or in response to paining of food with illness o Taste sensitivity is genetic Nontasters onefourth amount of normal taste buds Supertasters more women Olfactory system o Stimuli substances in the air that dissolve in the mucus in the nose o Receptors olfactory cilia o Not routed through the thalamus, but directly to the olfactory bulb
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