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week 7 notes 329

by: Mary-elizabeth Notetaker

week 7 notes 329 Bio 329

Mary-elizabeth Notetaker
U of L

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week 7
Cellular Molecular Biology
Paul Himes
Class Notes
Bio, bio329, Biology, cellularandmolecularbiology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary-elizabeth Notetaker on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 329 at University of Louisville taught by Paul Himes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Cellular Molecular Biology in Biology at University of Louisville.


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Date Created: 10/06/16
Week 7 Thursday, October 6, 2016 3:57 PM  Earliest orgs on earth- heterotrophs- survived on nutrients from envir ○ Anaerobes- capture and use E… O2 indep met  Then became autotrophs- manufactured org nuts from CO2 and H2S  Synth of complec mols from CO2 req large E input ○ Chemoautotrophs- E from inorg mols..mostly extremophils ○ Photoautotrophs- light E to make org compounds  Eventually evolved to splitH2O and make O2  Effects of O2 on life ○ O accum in atmosphere… ancestors of modern cyanobac ○ Aerobes evolved to use O..extract more E from org mols  Aerobe ingested by anaerobe…detox  Mitochondria ○ Roles:  Atp formation  Met  Cytoplasmic Ca2+ (w ER)  Cell death ○ Size & # varies w reqs of cell type  15-20% liver cell volume  Stacked in midpiece of sperm cell to power swimming ○ Membs  Outer: smoothly envelopes mitochondria in solid sheet..outer boundary □ Contains porins- outer memb pore forming protein □ B-barrel □ Lets lots of stuff in(even proteins)  Inner: □ Inner boundary- for protein import □ Cristae- folds into matrix to generate ATP… inc memb surface □ Impermeable..has special transporters □ Cardiolipin(diphospatidylglycerol)in inner memb but no cholesterol  Like bac memb  Spaces inside: matric + intermemb space  Mito matrix: circular dna genome, eibosome, enzymes  Some transcription/transl in matrix □ Human mtDNA encodes 2 rRNA, 22tRNA and 13 proteins □ Rest are encoded in the nucleus and proteins are imported ○ Ox met- first steps in glycolysis(incytoplasm) □ Produces: 2 pyruvate & 2 NADH & H+… net ATP: 2 ATP  Mit extract: >30 additional ATP from: pyruvate x 2, NADH x 2…needs O2  Pyruvate transported across memb by symporter  Decarboxylated to form acetyl CoA(has high E thioester bond)..makes another NADH per pyruvate □ Dehydrogenase…removes proton from hydrogen & moves e- (redox rx occurring) □ Every NADH can be converted to 3 ATP □ …acetyl CoA enters TCA/Krebs cycle ○ TCA cycle… substrate oxidixed(conserving E)  2C acetyl CoA condensed w 4C oxaloacetate--> 6C citrate by citrase □ FAD--> FADH2  2C oxidized to CO2--> 4C oxaloacetate-->continues cycle  2C oxidized to CO2--> 4C oxaloacetate-->continues cycle  4 rxs: 2 e- □ NAD+--> NADH □ FAD+-->FADH2  Pyruvate dehydrogenase makes 5 □ 2x per glucose □ 2 more from glycolysis..So total 12 high energy rxs □ AlsoGDP+Pi-->GTP (like ATP)  Uses E from CoA thioester bond  TCA intermediates: common compounds generated in other catabolic rxs □ Cells central met hub  Acetyl CoA--> Fatty acid cycle  Into things that are converted back to pyruvate and other things in TCA  Imp of reduced coenzymes in formation of ATP □ FADH2 and NADH- primary products of TCA cycle  Alsomakes GTP and some CO2  Reduction potential !! ◊ Creates proton gradient  e- transferred to series of carrier proteins in cristae  Proton gradient acreoss mem  O is terminal e- acceptor □ ATP made: H+ across memb down H+ gradient-->ATP-synth enzyme □ 3 atp formed from each pair of e- from NADH □ 2 stp from each pair of fadh2 □ 10 NADH + 2 FADH2 + 2 ATP + 2 GTP= 38 ATP  But…. Some E is lost ◊ Need proton symporter to pull pyruvate in ◊ NADH can get in intermemb space, but need E to convert it for it to cross  DHAP- int of glycolysis… add proton to get glycerol 3-P -->buts e- into FAD ◊ Glycerol phosphate shuttle uses FADH as e- acceptor..36 ATP  If atp dec, adp levels inc (if cleaved again-->AMP… starts glycolysis) ○ Get rid of nadh by fermentation if exercising ○ Fast twitch muscle fibers- contract rapidly, few mito, ATP produced anaerobically  Anaerobe met- des atp/glucose but produces them fast  Anaerobic met dec available glucose and inc lactic acid-->blood->liver->glucose->blood->muscles ○ Slow- many mito, produce atp by aerobic met(uses glucose as sub)  Free FA oxidized dueing prolonged exercise ○ Ratio of fast to slow varies ○ Heart only slow twitch…only aerobic resp  Role of mito in formation of atp ○ 3 ways:  Sub lvl phosph: makes atp in glycolysis  Use E going down E tower.. GTP in TCA cycle  Ox phosph- acts for 350lbs of atp per day □ 33 moles ATP □ Involves harnessing reducing power (as coming down E tower)  e- transport ○ 5 rxs of TCA cycle catalyzed by dehydrogenase  4 make NADH in matrix (NADH->NADHhydrogenase in inner memb)  Succinate dehydrogenase(generates FADH2)..already in inner memb ○ e- move thru inner memb w seriesd of carriers w dec redox potential ○ Carriers:  Flavoproteins- NADH dehydrog & succinate dehydrog.. Permanently bound to FAD or FMN  Ubiquinone(coenzyme Q)- lipid sol mols..can move thru memb  Ubiquinone(coenzyme Q)- lipid sol mols..can move thru memb  Cytochromes- heme groups(iron ions)  3 Copper atoms- all in singleprotein complex  Iron-sulfurproteins- iron coordinated w cys+inorganic S ○ Redox pot: FMN>ubiq>cytochrom  Used inhibitors to det seq and see where e- build up  E transport complexes (seq: 1,3,2,4) ○ Complex 1(NADH dehydrogenase)- catalyzes transfer of e- from NADHto ubiq and transports 4 H+ per pair ○ Complex 2(succinate ")- " " " " from FAD to ubiq w/out transport of H+ ○ Complex 3(cytochrome bc1)- " " " " from ubiq to cytochrome c and transfers 4 H+ per pair ○ Complex 4(cytochrome c oxidase)- " " " to O2 and H+ across inner memb  Cytochrome oxidase..pumps h+ out of liposome.. Acidifies outside, makes insidebasic □ Adds 4 e- to O2- forms 2 mol h2o


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