HORT 2040 CLASS 1 NOTES
HORT 2040 CLASS 1 NOTES HORT 2040
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by John Bradford on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HORT 2040 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Fain in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Student Learning Outcomes American Agriculture Deﬁnitions and History Deﬁne Agriculture Explore Major Historical and Technological Developments Agriculture Objective One The science, art, and business of DeﬁneAgriculture cultivating the soil, producing crops and raising livestock to meet the needs of humans Agriculture Agriculture Includes Agronomy Horticulture Animal Science Poultry Science The branch of agriculture Fisheries (Aquaculture) concerned with intensively Plant Pathology cultivated plants used by people for food, medicine, environmental Entomology Biosystems Engineering modiﬁcation and beauty. and....... The Agriculture Industry Farming Operations Involves all activities associated with Use land and other resources for agriculture crop production (food and non-food) and raising animals Includes farm operations, and non- farm operations Includes a wide range of operations from large scale conventional farms Largest industry in America to suburban farming Small Rural to Suburban Farming (Truck Crops Farming) Urban Farming Small scale family farms producing fruit and vegetable crops and small Small plots of land found in animals using “conventional or residential or business locations organic methods” Production of fruit and vegetable crops and small animals using Providing a families primary or conventional methods or organic supplemental income Non-Farm (Agribusiness) ObjectiveT wo Agricultural equipment, supplies, services, and processing of products Major Historical andTechnological (commodities) Developments Early Historical Inﬂuences Early Historical Inﬂuences Colonists - combined their own Native Americans - Indians ﬁrst experiences with practices learned began simple farming, by 1000 AD, form Indians to show early success corn is being grown in large plots Domesticated animals ATime Line of Major 18th Century Historical andTechnological Oxen and horses for power, crude wooden Developments plows, all sowing of seed and cultivating of soil by hand. 1790 – total population 3,929,214 (farmers 90% 18th Century of labor force) mostly single family farms. 1790 - tobacco number one export 1790’s –Thomas Jefferson’s plow tested 1796 – Public Land Act authorizes Federal land sales to the public in minimum 640-acre plots at $2 per acre of credit. ($34) One square mile 2 One Acre = 43,560ft 19th Century 1819 – Jethro Wood patents iron plow with interchangeable parts 1819-25 – U.S. food canning industry established; Nicolas Appert, father of canning 1820 – Total population: 9,638,453; Land Law allows as little as 80 acres of public land for a minimum price of $1.25 an acre ($24 in 2010) 19th Century 19th Century 1830 – About 250-300 labor-hours 1850 – About 75-90 labor-hours required to required to produce 100 bushels (5 acres) produce 100 bushels (2 ½ acres) of corn with of wheat walking plow, harrow, and hand planting 1825-50 – Some schools and colleges 1858 – Mason jars, used for home canning, were begin to offer courses in agriculture and invented in sciences helpful to agriculture 1840 – 3,000 miles of railroad track constructed 1850-59 – Agricultural exports: $189 million/ 1840 –Total population: 17,069,453; farm year or 81% of total exports population; 9,012,000 (est.); farmers 69% of labor force 1856 – East Alabama Male College 19th Century 19th Century 1860 –Total population: 31,443,321; farm population: 15,141,000 (est.); 1862 –The USDA was Founded by farmers 58% of labor force; Number of farms: 2,044,000; average acres: President Lincoln to help farmers who needed good seeds and 199 information to grow their crops 1860 – 30,000 miles of railroad 19th Century 19th Century 1890 – Total population: 62,941,714; farm 1870-79 – Agricultural exports: $453 population: 29,414,000 (est.); farmers 43% of million/year or 79% of total exports labor force; Number of farms: 4,565,000; average acres: 136; 1872 – Agriculture and Mechanical 1890 – 40-50 labor-hours required to produce College of Alabama, First Land 100 bushels (5 acres); 35-40 labor-hours required to produce 100 bushels (2 1/2 acres) of corn. Grant College in the South (College 1892 – The ﬁrst gasoline tractor was built by of Agriculture) John Froelich 1895 – George B. Seldon is granted U.S. patent for automobile 19th Century 20th Century 1900 – Total population: 75,994,266; farm population: 29,414,000 (est.); 1899 – Alabama Polytechnic farmers 38% of labor force; Number Institute of farms: 5,740,000; average acres: 147 1900-10 – George Washington Carver of Tuskegee Institute ﬁnds new uses for peanuts, sweet potatoes, and soybeans, helping to diversify southern agriculture 20th Century 20th Century 1910 –Total population: 91,972,266; farm population: 1900 – First corn club for boys, 32,077,000 (est.); farmers 31% of forerunner of 4-H clubs labor force; Number of farms: 6,366,000; average acres: 138 1911-17 – Immigration of Head, Heart, agricultural workers from Hands, Health Mexico 20th Century 20th Century PostWorldWar I -The early 1920s saw a rapid expansion in 1914 – Smith-Lever Extension the American agricultural economy largely due to new Act passed. Establishment of technologies and especially the federal-state Extension mechanization. Competition Service was a major step in from Europe and Russia had direct education for farmers disappeared due to the war and American agricultural goods were being shipped around the world. 20th Century 20th Century 1929-39 – Great Depression 1928 – Future Farmers of America founded 20th Century 20th Century 1932 – Farm prices and income reach Depression bottom 1930 – One farmer supplies, on 1930 –Total population: average, 9.8 in the United States and 122,775,046; farm population: abroad; 30,455,350; farmers 21% of labor 15-20 labor-hours required to produce force; Number of farms: 6,295,000; average acres: 157 100 bushels (2 1/2 acres) of corn; 15-20 labor-hours required to produce 100 1932-36 – Drought and dust-bowl bushels (5 acres) of wheat; conditions develop 20th Century 20th Century 1940 –Total population: 131,820,000; farm population: 1950 –Total population: 30,840,000; farmers 18% of labor 151,132,000; farm force; Number of farms: 6,102,000; population: 25,058,000; average acres: 175; farmers 12.2% of labor 1940s – Many former southern force; Number of farms: sharecroppers migrate to war- related jobs in cities 5,388,000; average acres: 216 1945 – 10-14 labor-hours required 1950 – One farmer supplies to produce 100 bushels of corn 15.5 persons (est.) 20th Century 20th Century 1960 –Total population: 180,007,000; farm population: 15,635,000; farmers 8.3% of labor Other Advancements 303ce; Number of farms: 3,711,000; average acres: Improved varieties of crop seeds 1960 – One farmer supplies 25.8 persons (est.) Development of improved fertilizers 1960 – API changes name to Auburn University 1970 –Total population: 204,335,000; farm Development of chemicals to control population: 9,712,000; farmers 4.6% of labor force; weeds, insects and other pests Number of farms: 2,780, 000; average acres: 390 1980 –Total population: 227,020,000; farm Widespread application of population: 6,051,000; farmers 3.4% of labor force; computers Number of farms: 2,439,510; average acres: 426 Late 20th Century and Beyond 21st Century Biotechnology--putting our scientiﬁc knowledge of biology Today - 3 labor-hours required (plants and animals) to practical to produce 100 bushels (3 acres use non-irrigated) of wheat GMO’s - BT corn and Roundup 1830 - 250 – 300 hrs on 5 acres Ready Corn and Soybeans for example 21st Century 20th Century 1790 – total population 3,929,214; farmers 90% of labor force Today about 960,000 claim farming as primary occupation. That’s about 1/3 of 1 percent of the population of the US Today one farmer feeds about 300 American Agriculture American Agriculture Deﬁnitions and History Deﬁnitions and History