PSY 401 Week 6 Notes
PSY 401 Week 6 Notes PSY 401
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Toomey on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 401 at Colorado State University taught by Sara Ann Tompkins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
PSY 401 Lecture 11: Mechanization & Quantification Tuesday, September 27, 2016 12:33 PM • Mechanization and Quantification o "There is not bodily or mental attribute… which cannot be gripped (grasped) and consolidated into a line with a smooth outline" -Galton o Mechanism- the consolidative outline • What comes with it is a quest for quantification • Images of the mind and the four skulls • Measurement of Psychology and Behavior -- moving on from philosophy o The "who" and "how" of early measurement • Thomas Hobbes: "fearless intellectual adventurer" o Hobbes • Life § Very gragile § Mother troubled by predictions that 1,588 years after the virgin birth, earth shattering catastrophes would occur § Oxford § Well paid tutor § Argued with Descartes § Considered a corruptor of morals • Spoke against biblical literalism and the authority of the Pope • Don't take everything so seriously, or word for word • Disagreed with Bacon • Ideas § Rationalist: Against Bacon's empiricism • Sought truth from facts…but must be done through deduction • Reason is important; must gain knowledge through deduction § Knowledge has its origins in sensory impressions from physical movement activating the sense organs • He called these "Phantasms"= motions in the brain § Experience= knowledge § Knowledge = science § He was a materialist • Even argued that God was a material being • The church didn't like that because God is supposed to be an all- powerful ominous being, not a structured material thing • Levithan (1651) § Important psychological and Political Work § Look at how we function as a society • Hobbes- Ideas § Powerful drives governed behavior • Self interest and self preservation § Without the structure and idea of a civil state we have • "continual fear and danger of violent death; and the life of man (is) solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short" • People would criticize him on being so pessimistic, but then he'd ask "Do you lock your doors at night?" when people said "yes," his point was proven § Do we need a strong central government, or have we moved past that? o Back to Descartes.. Anatomy and Physiology • Why is he in the r unning for father of modern psychology if he was wrong in so many ways? § He was wrong about many of his findings but he gave us ways to answer these questions § He gave us testable hypotheses, for when people disagree o Descartes Isnspiration • The automata inspired his theory of movement in nerves (NB nerve bundles known but not cells) § ** § ** • Reflexes § How our body responds to a stimulus o More Mechanical Descartes • Gave us "Testable" hypotheses! § Ex. Testing the nerve and muscles • A lot of movements are "non reflective " § Have their origins in senses which activate spirits • Animals as God's creations better than man made machines § No qualitative difference though § Animals do not have pineal glands (which was wrong) -- saying they didn't have a soul § Used animals for research • Dissected them while they were alive • He was amused by their screams; said their cries were mechanical • Believed if animals didn't have a soul, then they couldn't experience suffering o Jan Swammerdam • Spirits… I don't think so! § Didn't agree with Descartes-- so he tests it! • Tested Descartes theory of movement § Proved that spirits did not inflate the muscles § Cut muscle and found that it still contracts • Distinction between sensory and muscle nerves § Note: Group of researchers that fueled the quest for mechanization and quantification o Where do we get our inspiration from for current psychological research questions? • Think of this time in our history (guillotine era) --what is interesting to the public and great thinkers…? § Feeds into our quest in history f or understanding the body and mechanization/quantification • This was a public type of event that drew and interested people (brought children and popcorn) § 1905 Report reading of what this death looks like • "Undeniably living eyes which were looking at me" • People of this time are learning about the world around them by observing death in this way o Unzer • Was fascinated by the body in the same way • Reflexes § Discovered reflexes are Identical in decapitated and intact people and animals § Very interested in mechanization-- how the body works • Afferent and efferent § Nervous activity into and out of the nervous system • Studied the relationship between consciousness and nervous activity § Was all nervous activity contributing to consciousness? § Was it just high level activity generated by the brain? § What level of pain are we injecting up on someone with this method of death? o Juulien Offray De La Mettrie • "Thinking machine" (*cognitive psych, animals) • Determinist • L'Homme Machine § "Man a machine"-- we as humans are like ma chines (much like Descartes' mechanist point of view) § Origins in Descartes ideas -- deterministic evolutionary mechanistic point of view • Mental events depend on bodily events § Clarity of thought related to body temperature § Good physical health= good mental h ealth (ability to think clearly) § Brain injuries = mental debilitation (lucid thinking) • PTSD's effects on the brain • "The model of a 'thinking machine' into which sense perceptions feed ideas in the form of coded symbols that are in turn, stored, classed, c ompared, and combined by the cerebral apparatus in order to engender all the known varieties of thought" § Birth of cognitive psychology; hold this idea for 1950's psychology • He said there is No qualitative difference between man and animal § Yes, humans have language, but that's not enough to make us unique § Teaching apes to speak.. Why not? He said we could do that, so we are no better from animals § Hold this thought for 1960s -70s psychology: Comparative psychology • Comparing animal and man; we don't focus on th is type of psychology anymore • Mapping Central nervous system o Localization of Function Figures • Francois Magendie § Father of experimental physiology § Proved Charles bell's Theory… "the Bell -Magendie law" • Looking at afferent and efferent nervous system routes of the spinal column § Founder of experimental pharmacology § Previous way of knowing was through other people, but in 1817, we had books, ways of knowing on different syjects § 1817: Précis elementaire de physiologique (intro to p hysiology) • Franz Joseph Gall § "…gave psychology its most extreme theory of localization of function" § Personality and intelligence traits localized in particular areas of the brain § Ideas about phrenology offensive to religious and political authority § Folk psychology at its worst… pseudoscience § Phrenology: Extreme localization of function to the head § "You ought to have your head examined" § A second look at phrenology: Video clip • 1800s phrenology originated • Phrenology= assessing the person based on the structure of their skull • People divided into 4 body types: nervous, brillius, sanguine, and lymphatic • The mind is not a single entity; divided into 37 faculties • The size of the different mental faculties are proportionate to that aspect playing into a person's pers onality • By feeling the bumps on the skull, can tell if someone is prone to certain trait • Behavior truly influenced the health of the mind • Phrenologists emphasized fresh air and exercise to benefit the mind and your well being • Neuroplasticity= phenomenon that brain can change its structure based on experience • The components of the brain are not static -Gall • Different parts of the brain controlled/facilitated different mental pocesseses -- Gal was the first to think of this • Phrenology = "Science of the mind" § With changing cognitions, we can change our makeup. PSY 401 Lecture 12: Mechanization & Quantification Thursday, September 29, 2016 12:33 PM • Review from Tuesday o Quantification: observation of the person; a stimulus that caused an observable event • Ex. The guillotine o Phrenology: Looking at structural features of the soul rather than the brain • Having distinct localizations of human behaviors and traits • Critics to Phrenology o Pierre Flourens • AGAINST phrenology! • Supporting localization of function?...respiratory function in the Medulla Oblongata § Cerebrum higher level cognitive function a nd perceptions • He said Not really-- the brain functions as a whole § Highly interconnected networks § There is some localization of function, but for the most part, the brain is highly interconnected • Plasticity o Paul Broca • We do actually have at least some localization! (not phrenology) • Broca's area-- areas of the brain control speech production and speaking are localized in the brain • Mental institute patient *Tan • Fluid filled area of the brain o Carl Wernicke • Superior portion of the left temporal lobe interferes with speech comprehension • They could speak but not understand language § Following damage, can understand one component of speech or language (i.e. the word) but not understand production § How they discovered more localized areas • New Methods o Advancement through better methodologies • Observing and Measuring o Fritsch & Hitzig • Pioneers in electrophysiology § How stimulations effect specific functions of the brain § Sensitivity to specific areas on the brain • Using dogs stimulated one side of the cortex • Measured response in the opposite side of the body • Methods developed influenced evolution of psychology as a discipline! o Jaques Quetelet • One of the most underestimated figures in psychology • Relationship between age and criminal activity… • Statistics! § Normal bell curve § Standard deviation § Data is important, but it's your interpretation of what you're discovering that matters • "Average man" § There is a predecessor associated with each behavior relevant to the judicial system • Developed the BMI scale • Influenced Florence Nightengale § Major reformer and statistician § Developed figures and ways to visualize statistics that were being found at the time • Ways to interpret data from the bell curve that was being commonly used o Do we rely too heavily on quantitative measuremen t in 2016? • How do we measure the big picture? o Sir Francis Galton • Considered to be a child prodigy § Learned to read by age 2, understood greek and latin by 5 • Proposed a connection between genius and insanity (during nervous breakdown at university) § Hereditary genius (1869) § People's hereditary genius interferes with their mental disorders (i.e., insanity) which effects their day to day life • Obsession with counting • "Statistical inquiries into the Effectiveness of Prayer" (1872) • Co-relations and their measurements (1888) • Eugenics • First to use questionnaire in psychology • He doesn't fit the trait of the "average man" § The way he navigated the world and viewed others then made it easy for him to be above others or treat people as lower because he was a prodigy § He had a very rigid framework for what was good/bad in the world and what was success/failure • When he viewed other cultures, races, etc. he had a clear easy definition for what was superior and inferior in comparison • "There is no body or mental attribu te… Which cannot be gripped and consolidated into an ogive with a smooth outline" • Attempt to rationalize prejudice by self-fulfilling prophecies § If he had a different objectivity to what was viewed, he made the occurence of the world fit to what he wanted to hear/see • This approach is non-objective; we must look at objectivity in a different way § Have an approach that fits every subject of the population to make the method reliable § Cannot be defined by personal opinion § Must have a dependent variable § We need replication in science
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