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ANS 121H Notes, Weeks 0-2

by: Marina Banuelos

ANS 121H Notes, Weeks 0-2 ANS 121H

Marketplace > Oregon State University > Animal Sciences > ANS 121H > ANS 121H Notes Weeks 0 2
Marina Banuelos


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About this Document

These notes cover basic swine background and begin to cover beef cattle.
Introduction to Animal Sciences
Professor Kennedy, Professor Sherwood
Class Notes
animal, sciences, Swine, Beef, cattle, agriculture
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marina Banuelos on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANS 121H at Oregon State University taught by Professor Kennedy, Professor Sherwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Animal Sciences in Animal Sciences at Oregon State University.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
9/26 ● American agriculture’s the nation’s number one industry ○ 1.2% of nation’s GDP ● Nation’s number one employer, 1 in 6 jobs related to agriculture, 90% of jobs are off the farm ● World’s largest exporter of agriculture products, in 2012 exported $141.3 billion in agriculture products ● One farmer/rancher provides enough to feed 156 people, about 2.2 million farms in the U.S. ● 9.8% of income spent on food ● U.S. produces safest, cheapest, highest quality food in the world ● U.S. agricultural labor force is .3% of the world’s labor force ● Less than 2% of population live on farms or ranches ● Average American farm is 434 acres in size ● Average American farmer is 59 years old ● For each dollar spent on food, the farmer/rancher gets $.19 ● Improvements in agriculture have increased standard of living ○ Today’s life expectancy is 78.7 years ● Top ten Oregon agriculture commodities in 2015 ○ Cattle and calves ○ Greenhouse/nursery products ○ Hay ○ Milk ○ Grass Seed ○ Wheat ○ Potatoes ○ Pears ○ Wine Grapes ○ Onions 9/28 Animal Science: ● Study of the whole animal (physiology, biochemistry, nutrition, genetics, behavior, bacteriology, immunology) ● Study of domestic animals/livestock, poultry, and companion animals ● Study of relationship between environment (climate, origin, upbringing), science, and business (ethics vs. profit) Animal contributions to humans ○ Food ○ Milk ○ Clothing ○ By-products (leftover from other processes) ○ Animal feeds (bone and feather meal) ○ Power for work ○ Companionship ○ Fertilizer ○ Research ● Domestication started around 8,000 to 4,000 BC Feed Conversion ● Feed to gain ● Weight of feed in/product out ● Carbohydrates to high quality protein ● Poultry and Swine ○ Most efficient based on total feed consumed/total human food produced ● Cattle, Sheep, Goats ○ More efficient based on total usable food/total human food ○ Ruminants eat poor quality foods One common and constant goal ● Improving efficiency of milk and meat production Methods that increase efficiency: ● Density ● Hormones in cattle ● Antibiotics (healthier, performance-based animals) If removed: ● Decrease efficiency ● Reduced human food supply ● Increase worldwide hunger Types of agricultural systems: type of livestock in a location is determined by principal agricultural system used in that area ● Determined by climate, environment, soil type, and socioeconomic status Three Agricultural Systems ● Primitive ○ Goal is to provide food for you and family (hunting, fishing, stealing) ○ Nomadic herding ○ Can include crops and livestock ○ Very basic in methods ○ Common in Africa, Asia still ● Subsistence ○ Goal is to provide food for your immediate family ○ Self-sufficient ○ Livestock used for work and food ○ Some mechanization ○ Found throughout the world ● Developed/Intensive ○ Goal is to make a profit (family and others) ○ Can be specialized in livestock only (dairy, ranch) ○ HIghly detailed operations: mechanized, record-keeping, marketing, etc. ○ Found throughout the world Religion and Effects on Agriculture ● Islam forbid all contact with swine ○ No swine are found in highly Muslim areas (Africa/Middle East/Asia) ● Hinduism in India declares cattle sacred animals ○ Not allowed to be slaughtered or sold to be slaughtered ● Judaism ○ Similar to Islam with swine (declares pork unclean and forbids consumption) ● Kosher/Halal ○ Meat that is fit as sanctioned by Jewish and Muslim law ○ Animals have to be harvested by no mechanical means ○ Eggs might not be allowed depended on faith ○ Generally only the front quarters of the animal (loin down is considered unfit to eat) Origin on Swine Pigs- ● Wild types ○ 6 genera; 31 species Porcine is scientific name ● Family: Suidae ● Genus: Sus ● Species: Sus Scrofa Eight major swine breeds found in the U.S. but there are many different breeds worldwide. In the U.S, breeds can be broken down into maternal and terminal breeds. Maternal breeds: make good mothers ● Yorkshire: “The mother breed: ○ England ○ Solid white in color with erect ears ○ Known for large litters, mothering ability, milking ability ○ Used extensively in crossbreeding programs ● Landrace ○ Denmark ○ Solid white with large, floppy ears ○ 16-17 pairs of ribs, increases carcass length ○ Known for prolific, large litter that wean heavy ● Chester White ○ Chester County, PA ○ Solid White with small, floppy ears ○ Known for litter sizes, milking, and mothering ability Terminal breeds: known for meat and growth ● Hampshire: “Carcass breed” ○ England ○ Black with white belt and erect ears ○ Number one breed for large loin-eyes and leanness ○ Used extensively in cross-breeding like Yorkshires ○ Structure can be a concern ● Duroc: “We grow on you” ○ USA from Jersey Reds ○ Light red (dark yellow) to dark cherry red with floppy ears ○ Number one breed in feed efficiency ○ Good meat quality ● Berkshire: meat quality and flavor ○ England, oldest breed still used today ○ Black with six white points and erect ears ○ Known for nicking “crossing ability” ○ Be concerned about mothering ability, litter size, and growth rate ● Spot ○ Formerly known as “Spotted Poland China” ○ Developed in Indiana ○ Floppy ears with spotted body ○ Good growth rate ● Poland China ○ Originated in Ohio ○ Black with six white points and floppy ears ○ Known for being large in size and meat quality ○ Don’t grow quickly Animal Inheritance Earliest theories: Pangenesis Aristotle: Sperm and egg form all parts of body Preformationism: complete body inside of reproductive cells Germplasm: sex cells are fundamentally different than body cells- somatoplasm Gregor Johann Mendel: 1856 began experiments, linked study of heredity to pea plant traits ● Mendel’s Laws ○ Rediscovered in 1900s William Bateson (England) applies law to animals (combs and lobes in chickens) Genetics: The science concerned with heredity ● Explains similarities and differences between related individuals Heredity: The transmission of genetic or physical traits of parents to their offspring Genes: ● Basic unit of inheritance ● Ova and sperm are the only link from one generation to the next ● Properties of genes ○ Points of activity of inheritance ○ DNA is the genetic material that contains genes DNA: ● Double helix ● Watson and Crick (1953) (1962) Maurice Wilkins, Rosalind Franklin Location of genes: Chromosomes, Cell Nucleus, All cells Chromosome: Rod-shaped bodies carrying the genes which are found in the nucleus of all cells ● Occur in pairs ● Each member in the pairs is alike in size and shape except ● Sex chromosomes: X and Y in mammals, Z and W in birds An animal’s physical size does not relate to number of chromosomes Genotype/Phenotype Genotype: genetic makeup of an individual Phenotype: the characteristics of an animal that can be seen/measured ● Heredity+environment Variation: Difference between animals in any measured phenotype Genetic potential only occurs at conception ● Environment controls everything from that point on Alleles: genes occupying corresponding loci on homologous chromosomes that affect the same hereditary trait but in different ways ● Loci are the location sites of genes ○ Identical alleles: identical genes Dominant Genes: overpowers and prevents the expression of its recessive allele Recessive Gene: has its phenotype masked by its dominant when the two genes are present together in an individual Heritability Estimates: defined as the amount of phenotypic variation due to heredity, recorded as a % ● Traits with high heritability (40% or higher) ○ Hair color, back fat, carcass length, loin eye area, wool covering of face, # of nipples on swine ● Traits of medium heritability (20-40%) ○ Average daily gain, feed efficiency, milk production, weaning weight ● Traits with low heritability Selection differential: the average superiority of those selected for parents over the average of the population from which… Co-Dominance: traits that co-dominate to create a new trait 10/5 Breeding Systems ● Purebred breeding: used by seedstock producers ○ maintain bloodlines and pedigrees, very detail-oriented ● Inbreeding: mating animals that are more closely related than the average of the breed ○ To produce inbred lines for crossing purposes ○ As inbreeding increases, performance and livability decrease ○ The more closely related the parents, the greater the degree of inbreeding ● Line-breeding: mild form of inbreeding used to maintain a high genetic relationship to an outstanding ancestor, usually a sire ● Outbreeding/Outcrossing: mating animals that are not as closely related as the average of the population ● Grading Up: mating purebred sires to commercial grade females and their offspring for several generations ● Crossbreeding: mating animals of different breeds and between species ○ Advantages ■ Breed complementation ■ Hybrid Vigor or heterosis (additional growth, find their footing sooner after birth) Genetic Selection Estimated Breeding Value (EBV): what the parent as a whole has performed or termed the genetic worth of the animal Expected Progeny Differences (EPD): are used as management and selection tool for operations ● Estimates of the genetic potential to perform that an individual passes on to its offspring ● The advantage or disadvantage of the average animal ● ½ of an EBV ● Allows for producers to select certain traits Estimated Breeding Value = individual’s performance - average performance x heritability EPD Index: a tool that combines single traits to compare individuals ● Complex formula for each index ● Used in beef and swine mainly ● 100 is the base index, the higher the better (Terminal Sire Index) Days: days to reach 250 lbs BF: back fat (less is better) NBA: number born alive 21WT: 21 day litter weight TSI: Terminal Sire Index (higher is better) Best for growth: Yearling weight and weaning weight


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