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PSY 401 Week 7 Notes

by: Lauren Toomey

PSY 401 Week 7 Notes PSY 401

Marketplace > Colorado State University > PSY 401 > PSY 401 Week 7 Notes
Lauren Toomey

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These notes cover lectures from 10/4 and 10/6, including a Midterm review from in-class, with example multiple choice test questions given in class.
History and Systems of Pscyhology
Sara Ann Tompkins
Class Notes
psy, 401, history, Systems, Psychology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Toomey on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 401 at Colorado State University taught by Sara Ann Tompkins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 10/06/16
PSY 401 Lecture 13: Naturalism & Humanitarian Reform Tuesday, October 4, 2016 12:33 PM • Naturalism & Humanitarian Reform o Still in the modern period that "shaped" psychology as we know it o 1879-- the date that psychology changed • Definitions o Naturalism: "a philosophical perspective, states that scientific procedures and laws apply to all phenomena" (King, Viney, & Woody) • This changes everything because in early theories, we were focused on reason and rationality • Now we look for proof through science in naturalism • Later accounted for: § Origin of life § Disease § Emotional disorders (mind body connection affecting our mental heal th) o Humanitarian reform • Psychology emerging from changes in society § Abolition of slavery, education, etc. • No equality in everything § Changes leading to reform in • Slavery • Education • Sanitation and health • Equality for women • Birth control • Animal rights • Prison • Naturalism: Replacing Demonology o Early Evolutionary Theories • Roots in Anceint greece and eastern sources • Sir Charles Lyell § Reference Anaximander: nurturing first infant § Getting away from geocentric toward heliocentric: Copernicus § Lyell is building off of these ideas • He is applying them to geology; founder of modern geology § Uniformitarianism • Evolutionary changes on earth occur over a long time • As opposed to a catastrophe theory § Huge influence on Darwin o Organic Evolution and Theological Quarrels • "even within the Christian community, there was not universal agreement about the details of a sacred theory of origin" • 1st and 2nd chapters of Genesis debate § ** § ** o Comte De Buffon • Denied "Mutability" and did not openly support organic evolution • Studying humans developmentally-- looking at changes over time • Did wonder about apes and humans having a common ancestry • First modern figure to study developmental history & mortality statistics § Reference: who came up with statistics? § Looking for the natural explanation of hum an changes • Why is an infant more likely to survive in such and such environment? Getting into environment -- because it's what God wants o Erasmus Darwin • Inheritance of acquired characteristics § This is the mechanism by which we evolved o Evolutionary Theory • Darwin § Evolution as inheritance of acquired characteristics § All traits develop from a need (Not in accordance with church teachings) § Plant life preceded animal life § Animals all evolved from the same basic material • Jean-Baptise Lamarck § Progressionism • Steady linear advance from simple to complex species • Progression in nature from simple to complex forms § Transmutation of species • Characteristics of a species changed based on external conditions • Use/disuse model: animals/creatures are steps in this process • Proposed inheritance of acquired characteristics as the mechanism of evolution § Environmental pressure --> behavioral change --> biological change --> pass on to offspring § Ex. Trees get taller, so giraffes biological genes change to have longer necks to adapt o Charles Darwin • Cambridge • Fifth of 6 children • Not stellar in formal schooling § Had a fascination with insects § Gets interested in a voyage • H.M.S. Beagle (1831-1836) § His voyage is global, and important to the theory of evolution because: • Detailed note taking on the changes in the world around him § Read "Principles of Geology" by Charles Lyell • Uniformitarianism § Read "Essay on the theory of population" -- overpopulate § Gallapagos Islands ** • Evolutionary Theory § Darwin's work was presented with Alfred Russell Wallace's (1858) • Why wait so long to present? Because he was afraid of this controversial knowledge-- didn’t want to put family at risk § Then wrote-- "on the Origin of Speices by Means of Natural Selection" (1859) • Species tend to overpopulate • There is variation in all populations (this is random!) • There is struggle for survival • Learned from Fuegans on voyage; seeing humans act in animalistic ways • Individual differences with survival values are passed on to later generations (i.e., adaptive traits) § When writing on natu ral selection, he felt he was "confessing a murder" because it went against church and views of the time • The Descent of Man- Charles Darwin (1874) o Application of Evolutionary Theory • "Expressions of Emotions in Man and Animals" § Emotions are universal and have survival value § James C. Browne • "Biographical Sketch of an Infant" ( *developmental psychology today ) • Herbert Specer (1820 -1903) § Gave us term "Survival of the Fittest" § Social Darwinism • Society at large § "Principles of Psychology" written in 1855 • Why are we learning about evolution in a history of psychology class? o Naturalism explains that there are many explanations behind every behavior • Naturalistic Approaches to Emotional Disorders (A Return to Witchcraft) o Clip: witch hunts • Anyone could be accused durin g the witch hunt § It was a way of getting rid of some people; ending conflicts with enemies, etc. • The colony was divided into territories § Each territory wanted to establish authority, so witch hunt trials were established as competition (Switzerland had mor e than France, etc.) o Maleeus Maleficarium (1486) -- book to classify witches • How was one convicted of witchcraft? § Three elements are necessary for witchcraft: the evil -intentioned witch, the help of the devil, and the Permission of God • Johann Weyer-- "witches" were perhaps suffering from a mental illness § People accused him of being a witch because of this theory • Slow Demise of Witchcraft o Weyer o Spinoza • Only god exists, nothing else o Descartes • Mind-body relationship and pineal gland = no room for demons in life • Humanitarian Reform o Emotional Disorders o Franz Anton Mesmer (today: to mesmerize) • Group therapy (Today)? • Magnets across the body § Claimed to cure epilepsy and hysteria • Method of curing: had a robe and want, very theatrical guy, going around commanding people to "sleep" • Ran out of town (Vienna) after claiming to restore sight • Psychotherapy as Theatre § Animal magnetism § Essentially: a bucket of water with metal stone and glass in it • "I don't think so!"-- George Washington did not buy it! o Humanitarian Reform and Emotional Health • During this time, we put mentally ill in asylums • One of the key points influencing the separation of physiology from philosophy and anatomical account of life came from addre ssing the treatment of mental illness • Up until the mid 17th century the norm was Asylums o Asylums • Royal Hospital of Mary of Bethlehem • Began admitting patiens in 1337 for metnal illness § Charged the rich a penny to view the "Freaks" § Raping lunatics was common § You could bring sticks to poke them in their cells § Tuesdays was free § Described as a "Zoo" (feces, chaos, no supervision) o Philippe Pinel • Questions why people are being treated like this in asylums (similar to Dorothea Dix) • Modern Pinel Restriant system • Reform of asylums and Founder of Psychiatry? § Bicetre Hospital (1792) • Disgusting physical conditions • Released from their chains • Questioned why a man was chained, no one knew, then he unchained him • Why don't we think about patient history? -Pinel • Did use restraints, but was more humane • Patient history § Mental health and phyisology • Environmental factors and lifestyle • Father of modern humanistic psychology § "treatise on insanity" o Benjamin Rush (will cover Thursday) • Dorothea Dix o Reformer: • Of asylums o Witnessed appalling conditions in asylums -- got things changed by appeal • Used statistics in conducting her own social research into bad conditions • Founded 32 "mental hospitals" -- moved away from term asylum • Brain was the organ of the mind, but mental illne ss was also "The offspring of civilization" o Treatment: good diet, exercise, amusement, meaningful occupation • How does our society view mental illness today? (Discussion) o Still a stigma associated with it PSY 401 Lecture 14 Thursday, October 6, 2016 12:30 PM • Reading for today o Benjamin Rush o Discovered some problems with alcohol • Published writing on health effects of alcohol on the body o Raised evangelistic, went to Scotland o Helped abolish whiskey distillery • Midterm review o Logistics • 60 MC questions o Use quizzes on canvas to study o Small details about each person will not be asked; for ex. Family background; those things are shared for a richer understanding of the person o Focus on: • Big picture for people § Ex. Montaigne's philosophy • Make sure you underst and terms we have used a lot, like Empiricism and presentism vs. historicism § Empiricism= knowledge through experience using the senses • There will be quotes on the midterm (1 or 2) -- tied to big picture understanding o Ex: Hippocrates is sometimes regarded as the real founder of greek medicine. First to advance a thoroughgoing naturalistic account of illness; no reference to demons or supernatural causes. o Ex. ______ is a central figure in the history of psychology because he, more than any other empiricist, focused attention on the role of emotions in human intellectual life. He also had a skeptical view of our ability to "know". • David Hume o Ch 1-9 reminders to review: • Galen's contributions • Aristotle's philosophy -- know his 4 causes** • Bacon and his idols § Idols of the marketplace, etc. • Spinoza and his philosophy • Hobbes and his philosophy § "Do you lock your door? Then yes" • Who else contributed to the theory of evolution? § Anaximander § (along with Darwin) • Locke and his philosophy • 3 models of science that we discussed? Ch. 9 Continued • What is naturalism? • Margaret Sanger o Women's rights o Image of a stork and a woman defending herself; caption: "And the villain still pursues her" • Women don't need to only have babies • In 1800s women didn't know how to prevent having children § It was illegal for a doctor to tell a woman how to prevent getting pregnant § Mills got arrested for distributing pamphlets on how to prevent pregnancy • Shared how to have control over your body and life --> arrested o Life • Nurse from a large catholic family § People were attempting to give themselves abortions • Devout catholic until death o Active in women's rights to birth control • Opened one of the first planned parenthood clinics • Sadie Sachs § Self-induced abortion, got an infection, so Sanger nursed her back to health § Then it happened again, this time Sanger couldn't save her, Sachs died § This is where Sanger realized something needed to be done about women's rights o Women's rights are linked to reproductive choice o Founder of what we now know as Planned Parenthood o 1916-- first American Birth Control Clinic • She was charged, put on trial for opening it, then she won the case which is why we still have these clinics • Benjamin Rush o Eminent Physician Writer Educator and Humanitar ian • Signer of the Decleration for Independence o Trained Lewis and Clark before their expedition o Advocate for… • Abolition of slavery • Improved education for women • Flexibility in school curricular with an emphasis on practical subjects (** school psychology) • Prison reform • Plight on mental health o Rush and Mental health • Reforming physical health would lead to reforms in mental health • Mental health reform (1792) § Patients not possessed by satan § Organic, medial explanation • Giving a more medical perspective/explanatio n • Investigated/Case histories § Emphasizing people's history and background, like Pinel ---> for correct treatment • Treatment § Blood letting • Not the correct method today (obviously), but at least he tried for an organic method § Gyrator § Tranquilizing chair • Still uses restraints, but in a more humanitarian way (like Pinel) • Discussion: Rush article "Public Health Then and Now: Benjamin Rush's…" o Benjamin Rush tried to create a public health campaign against hard liquor: • Education not prohibition/Raise taxes/Pro vide alternatives • Alternative to drinking liquor? Drink beer! § Way better for you • Was this effective and is this an effective way to create a change in public health? Why? Why not? § No because people get stuck in their ways, and when told to do something, people will want to do the opposite § People don't respond well to authority § We follow role models better than we follow authority telling us what to do • How do we address behavior change in public health? § education • Combines space and morality -- wanted to assign beverages and their moral physical correlates to a scale on a thermometer. Is that effective? § Comparing science with morality (see scale in article) § Do we still do this today? • Fear appeals-- do we still use them? Are they effective? • How does psychology play into public health?


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