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Cog Neuro Week 6 Notes

by: Freddi Marsillo

Cog Neuro Week 6 Notes PSYC 3122

Freddi Marsillo
GPA 3.55

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About this Document

These notes cover what we learned during the class after our first exam.
Cognitive Neuroscience
Dr. Shomstein
Class Notes
cognitive, neuroscience, Psychology
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Freddi Marsillo on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3122 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Shomstein in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Neuroscience in Psychology at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
Cog Neuro Week 6 10/6/16 7:39 PM Executive Function • Patients exhibit disorganized actions and strategies for everyday tasks (a group of behaviors now known as dysexecutive syndrome) • Perform normally when clinical or lab based tests used to assess more fundamental cognitive functions such as memory, learning, language, and reasoning • To explain this unusual behavior, there must be an overarching system that coordinates other cognitive resources: executive system What is Executive Function? • Those that involve planning or decision making • Those that involve error correction or troubleshooting (relying on past experience) • Situations where responses are not well-learned or contain novel sequences of actions (being flexible and adaptive) • Dangerous or technically difficult situations • Situations which require the overcoming of a strong habitual response or resisting temptation (self-monitoring) • Executive system is a theorized cognitive system in psychology that controls and manages other cognitive processes • Involved in processes such as planning, cognitive flexibility, abstract thinking, rule acquisition, and inhibiting inappropriate actions and irrelevant sensory information • Dynamic, “online” coordination of cognitive resources Goal-oriented behavior: planning and selection Grafman (NIH) • Family of 4 – long-term financial goals o Purchase a home, get kids to college, retire, etc. Penfield • Saw patients with frontal lobe damage – inability to coordinate steps in a logical way • Inability to prepare a family meal; could remember ingredients but could not make decisions to put everything together; have trouble putting a sequence together/combining all the steps Shallice • Go shopping – purchase a list of items, find out some info (instructions were typed up and given) Frontal lobe = 1/3 of cortex • Lateral prefrontal cortex (green) • Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (yellow) • Anterior cingulate gyrus (dark pink) Goal-Oriented Behavior: Good Financial Decisions The ultimatum game • Most people with intact brains accept fair offers and reject unfair ones • People with damage in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex reject fair offers • TMS the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in healthy people – participants accepted more unfair offers Lateral Prefrontal and Memory • Prefrontal cortex is like the “blackboard of the mind” o Extremely important role in working memory • NOT associative memory • Babies have minimal frontal lobe o Perseverative and concrete • Working memory task – monkeys see two blank cards; two food wells underneath the card – food in one of the wells • Associative task = monkey learned to associate a certain card with a food reward o Plus (+) sign means food is underneath • Monkeys with prefrontal cortex damage perform just fine on the associative memory task o But are impaired on working memory task – tendency to perseverate (to go back to the same response they’ve already made) until they finally switch and open the right food well Lateral Prefrontal and Working Memory • Wisconsin Card Sorting Task o You are given a deck of cards and asked to sort them, but not given a rule on how to sort them o First you can try to start by color, by shape, etc (Experimenter either says “wrong” or “correct”) o You might start to get the hang of it (experimenter keeps saying “correct”) and then experimenter suddenly changes rules o Once person gets into this pattern of responses and then the rule changes (experimenter is now saying “wrong”), it can be frustrating and they perseverate on the responses • Perseveration – symptom of frontal lobe dysfunction • Recognition is insufficient • Relevance of features/response Prefrontal and other memory domains: Temporal memory It’s not remembering the items –it’s remembering the temporal sequence of the items (example: cooking – not remembering the ingredients, but remembering the sequence in which you use them) • You are asked to remember which item in the sequence came first after viewing pictures of items • According to this graph, you can see that those with damage in the frontal lobe group performed most poorly in the recency test 10/6/16 7:39 PM 10/6/16 7:39 PM


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