Chapter 1 Notes
Chapter 1 Notes GEOG 32102-02
Northwest Missouri State University
Popular in People and Cultures of the World
Popular in Geography
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Morse on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 32102-02 at Northwest Missouri State University taught by Kevin Romig in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see People and Cultures of the World in Geography at Northwest Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
09.02.16 CHAPTER 1 GLOBAL CLIMATE AND CULTURE I Climate a Precipitation i Not evenly distributed across the earth. ii Need a source of water and physical processes for water vapor to condense and fall in clouds. b Arid Landscapes i Deserts form for a variety of reasons: 1 High pressure belts. 2 Cold ocean currents. 3 Rain shadow effect. c Seasons i Because the earth is titled on its axis, annual variation of incoming solar radiation affects seasonality. 1 Seasons more exaggerated in high latitudes. II Vegetation a Plants are most comfortable in certain climatic regions: i Trees 1 Moist, cool temperatures. ii Grasses 1 Semi-arid, warm iii Cactus 1 Arid and hot iv Can be directly related to elevation and orographic processes. III Global environmental change a Throughout earth’s history, climate and vegetation patterns have changed rather dramatically. i Volcanoes and ash debris. ii Meteorite hits and effects. iii Chemicals from magma releases. b The Greenhouse Effect i To be safe, reducing the amount of fossil fuels burned will help curb the influx of Carbon Dioxide into the atmosphere. ii Invest in energy stemming from renewable resources. IV Ethnic group a A group of people who share a set off beliefs, a way of life, and a common ancestry. b Ethnic heritage. c Background and formative experiences. d Cultural norms. e Societal views. V Race a A socially constructed term based on apparent characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, and bone structure. b Racism i Poor treatment of or violence against people. ii The belief that some races of people are better than others. iii Embedded in our society. iv Stems from ignorance. VI Multiculturalism a The cultural and ethnic diversity of communities within a given society. i Promotes diversity. VII Culture a A shared set of meanings that are lived through the material and symbolic practices of everyday life. i Complex set of social, political, and historical factors play into cultural practices. VIII Cultural landscape a A tangible outcome of complex interactions between a human group and the natural environment. IX Social Injustice a Promoting a just society by challenging injustice and valuing diversity. i The notion that all people have a right to equitable treatment, support for their human rights, and fair allocation of community resources. 1 Issues of race and class. 2 Gender issues. 3 Sexual orientation issues. 4 Religious or political discrimination. X Values a Although humans tend to be more alike than different, different cultural groups tend to have various values that define normal behavior. XI Religion a Often a difficult topic. i Because so many misconceptions skew visions and images of religious adherence. ii Dogma and who is right? b Major religion groups i Islam ii Judeo-Christian iii Buddhism iv Hinduism XII Warnings a Misconceptions and ignorance about religion and culture can create hostility and angst. i Who is the terrorist? SUSTAINABILITY I Inherent problem. a How do we balance our needs for consumption and economic development with wise resource use and conserving natural resources. II Air Pollution a Industrial processes and burning fossil fuels emit chemicals into the atmosphere. i Greenhouse Effect. 1 Increase in CO2 levels in atmosphere. 2 Climate warming. 2 b In industrial regions in China, the air is so polluted that it looks like regular fog. III Water Pollution a An old saying, “the solution to pollution is dilution.” i Rivers, lakes, and oceans are often dumping sites for unwanted materials. b The oceans may be the most polluted water bodies on earth. i Plastic island in Pacific. ii Destruction of coral reefs. IV Habitat Preservation a Land animals also face significant challenges due to human population. i Predator species eliminated for killing farm and herd animals. ii Rainforest deforestation for arable farm land. iii Urban sprawl encroaching on traditional wilderness areas. iv Senseless violence. V Massive Income Inequality a Humanity is witnessing unprecedented levels of income inequality. i Very wealthy. ii Very poor. VI Access to food a Many people have increasingly difficult times accessing food and becoming nourished. i Poverty ii Drought iii Political instability VII Access to Water a Many people have increasingly difficult times accessing water. i Freshwater resources dwindling. ii Arrogant production. iii Privatization. VIII Global Warming a As greater amounts of carbon dioxide enter the atmosphere, solar radiation becomes trapped. IX Urban Heat Island Effect a Humans have converted natural landscapes into built environments. i Effect: Places do not cool off at night. X Sustainability a Sustainable development i Development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations. b Using fewer fossil fuels to produce energy. c Recycle and reuse. d Managing growth. e Reduce levels of consumption. f The goal of capitalism is to make profit from consumption. i Sustainable development seeks lower levels of consumption. g The right decisions are often more costly in the short-run and more difficult. i We will save money in the long run. h We must adjust our expectations about growth and profit or we will likely become extinct. 3 i The hidden costs of development are not factored into ill-defined “bottom line” costs. XI Basic Human Rights a Access to food, water, and air are fundamental to human survival. i We must live within our means and make smarter decisions about production, consumption, and the environment. XII What can we do? a Decisions we make affect others. i Drive less and more fuel efficient vehicle. ii Advocate for clean, renewable energy. iii Buy less stuff and recycle what we can. iv Self-reflection on our part in the world. v Respect and appreciate nature. XIII Conclusions. a Water and air pollution need solutions at the global scale. b Sustainability is an important concept, and reducing consumption is essential for the health and humanity on earth. 4
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