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Chapter 4 Notes Europe

by: Sarah Morse

Chapter 4 Notes Europe GEOG 32102-02

Sarah Morse
Northwest Missouri State University

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Chapter 4 Notes In Class Europe British Isles and Ireland Northern Europe Eastern Europe Southern Europe
People and Cultures of the World
Kevin Romig
Class Notes
Chapter, 4, four, notes, In, class, geography, people, and, Cultures, europe, british, isles, Ireland, Northern, Eastern, Southern
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Morse on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 32102-02 at Northwest Missouri State University taught by Kevin Romig in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see People and Cultures of the World in Geography at Northwest Missouri State University.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
CHAPTER 4 UNITED KINGDOM AND IRELAND GEOGRAPHY I. Scotland, Wales, and England are on the island of Great Britain. a. Northern Ireland broke from Ireland in 1922. i. Source of conflict. NORTHERN IRELAND I. Terrorism launched by the Irish Republican Army against UK control of Northern Ireland. a. Bloody Sunday (1972) i. 26 unarmed civil rights protesters and bystanders were shot by British soldiers. II. United States helped broker the 1998 Good Friday Agreement. a. Devolution of direct UK rule over No. Ireland. i. Northern Ireland Assembly would rule the land. ii. Greater amount of peace in Belfast. SCOTLAND I. Joined the United Kingdom in 1707 a. Scottish have been unenthusiastic subjects of UK and have attempted to gain independence. b. Held onto a separate legal system from UK c. Voted down independence in 2015. i. Edinburgh was the hub of the Scottish Enlightenment of the 18 century, which transformed Scotland into one of the commercial, intellectual, and industrial powerhouses of Europe. WALES I. Conquered by England in the Middle Ages. a. Welsh have remained tied to early Celtic tradition and culture. i. Welsh place names. II. Resources sought after Wales by English business interests. a. Coal b. Tin c. Slate ENGLAND I. Had been an independent political unit, but joined together to form UK. a. Prided themselves in legal system, education, and trade. i. Magna Carta (1215): human rights document. II. Created large empire where English culture exported throughout the world. a. The sun never sets on the British empire b. Royal navy dominated the seas c. London becomes financial center of world LONDON I. Major human settlement for 2,000 years a. Current population: 8.3 million b. Located along River Thames c. Financial, cultural, political capital of UK BRITISH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION I. Growth of UK as economic power a. Coal mining i. power b. Iron and steal manufacturing c. Textiles i. Cotton and wool d. Shipbuilding II. London was financial center a. Industrial cities i. Manchester ii. Birmingham iii. Liverpool iv. Glasgow b. British factories became old and worn out and were not retooled after WWII. i. Cheaper labor and raw materials in other parts of the world. ii. Outsourcing BREXIT I. In 2016, the UK voted to leave the European Union. a. UK had never changed the pound to Euro b. Concerns about immigration control c. People unconvinced regarding improvement i. Scotland wanted to stay in EU IRELAND I. Independent country a. Had lagged behind other countries in economic development i. Transition from agriculture to industry II. Largely skipped heavy industry into growing technology and electronics industry. a. Silicon Bog i. Dublin to Cork THE COUNTRYSIDE I. Most of the population in Ireland and the UK is located in compact cities. a. London has one of the most extensive public transit systems in the world. II. Many wealthy people in UK have homes or cottages in the country. a. Often in Scotland and Wales 2 FOOTBALL I. Tremendous zeal toward soccer a. Local teams comprised of international players b. English Premier League CONCLUSIONS I. Very high standard of living although economy of UK has shifted from industrial production to services. II. Control in Northern Ireland and Scotland is negotiated in terms of independence and relations with UK III. Great recent economic transition in Ireland has led to significant improvements in income and purchasing power for Irish population. NORTHERN EUROPE WATER BODIES I. Baltic sea a. Important inland waterway to northern Europe II. North sea a. Off shore oil resources TRADE AND ECONOMICS I. Port facilities and sea navigation have been critical in economic development in northern Europe. a. Copenhagen, Denmark b. Rotterdam, Netherlands c. Hamburg, Germany SUBREGIONS OF NORTHERN EUROPE I. Scandinavia a. Norway b. Sweden c. Finland d. Denmark II. Benelux a. Belgium b. The Netherlands c. Luxembourg III. Baltic states a. Latvia b. Lithuania c. Estonia d. Poland IV. Highlands a. Switzerland 3 b. Austria c. Liechtenstein V. Germany SCANDINAVIA I. Germanic people a. Culturally and linguistically II. Far north in latitude and strong seasonality III. Very high standard of living and very high income taxes. IV. Lutheran tradition of being modest and calm is still a significant part of society even though religion is no longer a big part of Scandinavian culture. V. In Denmark, village of Christiania is quite different… a. Former military barracks where commune formed b. No official government, disputes resolved through discussion c. Widespread use of drugs i. Cocaine ii. Marijuana iii. Hashish d. Form of anarchy BENELUX I. In many ways, Benelux is the heart of Europe. a. One of the first trading pacts or blocks in the world. b. EU Government in Belgium c. Important sites for tribunals of Nazi war criminals d. Very tolerant society with many social programs and very small military forces. II. Lowland environment where significant portions of the land have been reclaimed by the sea. a. Large waterways especially in Amsterdam. BRUSSELS, BELGIUM I. Site of aggressive terrorist activity, March 2016 a. Two bombs detonated at the airport. b. One bomb exploded on the subway near EU headquarters. c. Fairly large and disconnected Muslim community. NETHERLANDS I. Very experiences traders and transportation experts. II. Most of the population in nearly fluent in many language. a. Usually four or more. i. Polyglot b. Native tongue i. Dutch, Flemish c. German d. French e. English III. Large manufacturing area along the lower rhine river valley a. Iron and steel industries 4 b. Transportation equipment c. Chemicals i. Oil form north sea BALTIC STATES I. These states had been part of the Soviet Empire and aligned with communist eastern Europe after WWII. a. Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia part of USSR b. Poland was communist Bloc. II. Poland was one of the first eastern European nations to break away from the communist bloc. a. Solidarity movement (1980s) i. Non-communist party union movement ii. Lech Walessa III. Solidarity movement a. In the 1980s, solidarity was a broad anti-bureaucratic social movement, using the methods of civil resistance to advance the causes of workers’ rights and social change. b. The communist government attempted to destroy the movement through martial law and political repression. i. Did not work this time. IV. Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania have moved as far from Russia as possible culturally and economically since the fall of the Soviet Union. a. Early independence b. Joined the EU V. Tallinn, Estonia is one of the more cosmopolitan cities across the Baltic region. VI. Finland is sometimes lumped in with the Baltic states because of its historical connections with communism. HIGHLANDS I. Territory in and around the Alps a. Switzerland b. Austria c. Liechtenstein AUSTRIA I. Known for heritage tourism related to classical music. a. Salzburg b. Vienna i. Wolfgang Mozart ii. Joseph Haydn iii. Franz Schubert iv. Johann Strauss SWITZERLAND I. Very well developed society known for precision equipment and banking and finance. a. Questions remain about Swiss bank accounts and Nazis 5 II. Well-developed financially and continues to decline membership in the EU to avoid risk. a. Bailouts of eastern Europe and Greece GERMANY I. The economic heart of Europe a. Upper rhine river valley i. Precision equipment ii. Automobiles II. German reunification a. Bringing together east Germany and west Germany has been a difficult process because of the different economic and social systems in place. i. Strong people with a strong cultural identity. III. Modern Germany a. Germany has the world’s fourth largest economy b. Second largest exporter and third largest importer of goods c. Very high standard of living i. Comprehensive social security that includes the world’s oldest single payer universal health care system. IMPORTING LABOR I. In much of northern Europe, it is common for workers to immigrate from Africa, Asia, or Eastern Europe to fill lower skilled job positions. a. Turkey b. Greece c. Algeria CONCLUSIONS I. Diverse physical landscapes with strong cultural similarities a. Robust economies b. Coalition governments with many social programs c. Very cosmopolitan and welcoming, but ethnic heritage remains important and celebrated. d. Increasing dependence on guest workers and immigrants for low skilled jobs. SOUTHERN EUROPE MAPPING THE REGION I. South of the Alps Mountains 1. Along the Mediterranean Sea GREECE II. Many different islands throughout the Aegean Sea a. Greek empire (4 century BCE) 6 III. Heritage tourism of Greek empire sites a. Parthenon b. Acropolis c. Ancient Athens IV. Modern Greece joined the EU, but political instability and individual debt causing large economic problems. ITALY I. Roman empire dominated southern Europe and southwest Asia from 100 BCE through 4 century CE. II. Divided country between northern Italy and southern Italy a. Rome, entry point to southern Italy III. Vatican city is within Rome and an independent state and center for roman catholic church. IV. Vatican city and its importance dates back to the holy roman empire (1300-1500 CE) V. Northern Italy is more industrial and modern than southern Italy a. Po river valley b. Milan i. Fashion capital of the world VI. Southern Italy is more agricultural and rural. a. Sicily SPAIN AND PORTUGAL I. The giants during the age of discovery a. Conquistadors b. Navigators i. Columbus, De Gama, Magellan, Pizarro PORTUGAL I. Amassed great wealth in colonial times, but slow to adopt industrial activities and modern economy. II. Portugal is the world’s leader in production of cork. a. Cork trees SPAIN I. Greater economic progress on Iberian Peninsula a. Light industrial activities II. Barcelona, Spain a. Along the Mediterranean Sea i. Stretch of beautiful coastline III. Strait of Gibraltar a. Influences of northern Africans into Spain b. Disputed between UK and pain over ownership i. 7.7 mile distance between Spain and Morocco MONACO 7 I. small territory where tourism related to gaming and resorts is major part of economy. a. Many wealthy people with vacation homes ITALIAN RIVIERA II. San Tropez a. Villas and resorts often owned by very wealthy Italian families. FRANCE I. Population and economic opportunity clustered in Paris. a. 11.7 million population. PARIS II. Primate city a. Produces and consumes a disproportionately high share of the country’s goods and services. i. Great magnet for rural to urban migration. III. Due to colonial ties to northern Africa, France has a large Arab population. a. Arabs comprise about 10% of France population. i. France’s government very secular IV. 2004, France banned the wearing of head scarves and other religious dress in public schools. a. Rioting in Paris 2006-2007. V. 2016, After the multiple radical Islamic terrorist actions, some communities have outlaws the wearing of burqas at the beach. a. Racial proficiency, but a strange form. b. Justification is that it keeps women subservient c. Islamophobia EASTERN EUROPE COMMUNIST BLOC I. Many countries in Eastern Europe fell under control of the USSR after WWII. a. USSR fought Nazi’s very hard. II. These countries adopted Communist forms of government. a. Strong central governments b. Resource shortages c. Strong police activities III. Lots of heavy industrial activities producing metals, chemicals, and vehicles. a. Less efficient than market based plants b. Bleak landscapes IV. Separation between each and west Europe most evident in the Berlin Wall. V. Political instability a. After the death of Josef Stalin, Hungarian Revolt took place in 1956. i. Desired free elections. ii. Removal of Stalin statue. iii. Tribunals into illegal dealings. 8 iv. Soviet army crushed resistance movement v. 200k Hungarians sought asylum as refugees vi. 13k Hungarians imprisoned ETHNIC PROBLEMS I. political boundaries drawn very poorly, but did not matter when soviets controlled territory with iron fists. a. Czechs and Slovaks b. Bosnians and Serbians PERESTROIKA I. Mikhail Gorbachev brought reform to the Soviet Union. a. Captialism b. Free elections c. Breakdown of Bloc BERLIN WALL COMES DOWN I. The Iron Curtain crumbles as Eastern Europeans see higher quality of life of their neighbors to the west. YUGOSLAVIA BOSNIAN EHTNIC CLEANSING I. Yugoslavia began fracturing along ethnic territory lines. a. Serbian government became belligerent. i. Slobodan Milosevic, Communist elected leader II. Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia, and Macedonia all demanded independence from Yugoslavia. a. War between Serbians, Croatians, and Bosnians over territorial control. i. Fight over Sarajevo. III. Nationalism increased and Serbians sought greater territorial control and murdered Bosnian Muslims and Croats. a. 8k slaughtered b. Act of genocide (1990s) REDRAWN YUGOSLAVIA I. Subdivided based on ethnic and cultural population groups. GENOCIDE I. Deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, caste, religious, or national group. a. Rwanda in 1990s b. Bosnia in 1990s c. Cambodia in 1970s d. Holocaust in 1930s and 1940s HOLOCAUST IN EASTERN EUROPE 9 I. Some of the greatest atrocities towards the Jews happened in Eastern Europe. a. Auschwitz (Poland) b. Budapest (Hungary) c. Belzec (Ukraine) II. Auschwitz a. Series of concentration and extermination camps i. 1.1 million Jews exterminated ii. 15k Soviet prisoners of war iii. 400 Jehovah’s witnesses b. prisoners subdivided i. Strong people forced into hard labor ii. Some taken for medical experiments iii. Most led to gas chamber and executed MODERN ETHNIC PROBLEMS UKRAINE I. Ukrainian identity a. Are they part of Eurasia with Russia and many other former Soviet Republics or are they European. II. Crimea a. Russian army came in and took it from Ukraine. b. Most people in Crimea were of Russian descent so he took it over. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT I. Most countries in Eastern Europe either have joined or want to join EU. a. Common trade law b. Common currency c. Common legal system II. Czech Republic and Romania seeking international investment to help modernize factories and labor force. TOURISM AND RETIREMENT I. Many western Europeans are cashing out and retiring or moving to Croatia. CONCLUSIONS II. Region with much political strife and turmoil throughout the last 100 years III. Issues with communist bloc history IV. Location advantages near core markets of western Europe. 10


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