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Week 1 Notes

by: Katelynn Hine

Week 1 Notes MSCI B210 001

Katelynn Hine


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About this Document

History of Oceanography, and Tides
Oceans and Man
Dr. Ember
Class Notes
Science, Marine
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelynn Hine on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MSCI B210 001 at University of South Carolina - Beaufort taught by Dr. Ember in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 10/06/16
1 MSCI B 210  ­  “Oceans and Man”  ­  Lecture One History of Oceanography  ­  Notes Ancient History Herodotus ­ Flat earth theory Eratosthenes ­ calculated circumference of earth Ptolemy ­ Spherical earth theory ­ Latitude & longitude Polynesians ­ “star structures” and navigational charts European Exploration Vikings ­ North Atlantic exploration and settlement Arabs ­ trade routes in Indian Ocean Chinese ­ ships traveled to Persian Gulf and Pacific Ocean Spanish & Portuguese ­ trade routes to Asia and America Magellan ­ first circumnavigation of the earth’s oceans Beginnings of Marine Science Captain Cook ­ chronometer ­ determined longitude Measured winds, currents, depths, water temperature,  coral reefs ­ almost reached “proposed” Antarctica Benjamin Franklin ­ chart of Gulf Stream Matthew Maury ­ nautical & meteorological data ­ father of  oceanography ­ wrote first oceanography textbook Charles Darwin ­ The Beagle ­ biological data, coral reefs Rosses ­ Arctic & Antarctic ­ deep water temperature & organisms Modern Oceanography The Challenger Expedition ­ specifically organized for marine research: Physical oceanography of deep sea Chemical composition of seawater w/depth Characteristics of the sea floor Distribution of marine life w/depth & on sea floor 4700 new species Voyage of the Fram ­ drifted across Arctic ocean ­ no  continent ­ ship was frozen in pack ice Nansen measured subsurface temperature & salinity ­  water masses ­ tried to sled to North Pole 2 MSCI B 210  ­  “Oceans and Man”  ­  Lecture One History of Oceanography  ­  Notes Modern Oceanography Oceanographic Institutions Scripps Institution of Oceanography Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Lamont­Doherty Geological Observatory Voyage of the Meteor ­ South Atlantic water masses, ocean floor The Glomar Challenger ­ Deep Sea Drilling Project ­ sediment  cores from the deep ocean floor Ocean Drilling Project ­ continental margins also Alvin ­ manned submersibles ­ deep sea vents Remote Sensing ­ satellites Components of Oceanography Geological ­ Coastline and Sea Floor Morphology Formation of Earth and Oceans Plate Tectonics ­ Sea Floor Spreading Chemical ­ Seawater, Sediments, Rocks & Minerals Characteristics of Water Physical ­ Ocean Currents, Water Masses Waves, Tides Biological ­ Marine Life Forms, Ecology of Marine Environment Ocean and Coastal Engineering ­ Energy, Erosion Control BMAR B 210  ­  “Oceans and Man”  ­  Lecture Two 1 Tides  ­  Notes Tides Tide­Generating Forces Law of Gravitation ­ concerns attractive forces between particles Gravitational Force ­ proportional to the product of their masses & inversely  proportional to the square of the distance between them: m 1m 2 Gravitational Force = G  __________ 2   r   Tide­generating Force ­ inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the  earth and tide­generating object:  m 1m 2 Tide­generating Force   __________   r   Distance becomes important factor in equation ­ sun may be much more  massive than moon, but is very far away ­ Result: tide­generating  force  of sun is less than that of moon Effects of Sun and Moon Tidal Range ­ tide­generating forces of sun & moon add up Spring Tide ­ forces working together, maximum tidal range Neap Tide ­ forces working at right angles, minimum range Lunar Tidal Day ­ time for moon to appear over a spot on earth ­ longer than  solar day due to rotation of earth ­ 24 hours, 50 minutes Equilibrium Tide ­ two tidal bulges on opposite sides of earth – combination of forces:  gravitational attraction of the moon and centrifugal force of the spinning earth Types of Tides  Diurnal Tide ­ single high and low cycle each lunar day Semidiurnal Tide ­ two highs and two lows each lunar day Mixed Tide ­ characteristics of both diurnal and semidiurnal  Diurnal Inequality ­ High & Low Water ­ Semidiurnal tides: high highs, low highs,  high lows, & low lows – angle of the moon’s orbit around the earth Tidal Currents­ Reversing Currents ­ alternating ­ moves in and out during a lunar day Ebb Current ­ tidal water moves out of basin Flood Current ­ tidal water moves into basin Slack Water ­ velocity is minimal at high & low tide Tidal Bore ­ abrupt change in water level in shallow bay with a high tidal range ­ tides  rush in or out rapidly ­ forms a breaking wave at flood tide


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