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Week 2 Notes

by: Katelynn Hine

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Week 2 Notes MSCI B210 001

Katelynn Hine

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Waves, and Water Movements
COURSE
Oceans and Man
PROF.
Dr. Ember
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
4
WORDS
CONCEPTS
Science, Marine
KARMA
25 ?

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelynn Hine on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MSCI B210 001 at University of South Carolina - Beaufort taught by Dr. Ember in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
BMAR B 210  ­  “Oceans and Man”  ­  Lecture Two 1 Waves  ­  Notes Waves ­ surface of the ocean seems to be in constant motion ­ driven by wind.  Wave  motion involves the transmission of energy through matter.  Energy passes from one  water molecule to the next, molecules oscillates back and forth or in an orbital pattern. Wave Characteristics Crests ­ high part of wave Troughs ­ low part of wave Wavelength (L) ­ horizontal distance between crest & crest (t & t) Wave Height (H) ­ vertical distance between crest and trough Amplitude (A) ­ 1/2 H Wave Steepness ­ ratio of H to L  Wave Period (T) ­ time required for two crests (one L) to pass a fixed point ­  if either L or T is known, other can be calculated: 2 L (meters) = 1.56 (m/s) T    Circular Orbits ­ diameter = H, decreases with depth ­ particle motion ceases at  a depth of one­half wavelength (L/2) Wave Speed = Velocity (C) = L (m)/ T (sec) Deep­Water Waves ­ exist where water depth is greater than L/2  Velocity (C) = L/T = 1.56 T Swell – storm waves generated in a sea reach margins of generating area ­  wave height decreases ­ become long waves Interference Patterns ­ swell waves from different storm areas  meet and interfere with each other Constructive ­ same L ­ wave height  increases Destructive ­ same L ­ cancel each other out Mixed ­ most common ­ complex pattern is seen  Rouge Wave Wind­Generated Waves ­ wind energy increases H, L, and C Sea ­ area in which wind­driven waves are generated ­  short, choppy waves moving in different directions        Factors that increase amount of energy transferred to waves: Wind speed  Duration ­ time wind blows in one direction Fetch ­ distance wind blows over in one direction Steepness ­ when H/L = 1/7, breakers form ­ whitecaps Shallow­Water Waves ­ long waves ­ L is much larger than water depth ­ Speed  determined by water depth Wave refraction ­ bending of the waves as they approach shore ­ water becomes shallower Wave reflection ­ little loss of energy BMAR B 210  ­  “Oceans and Man”  ­  Lecture Two 2 Waves  ­  Notes Wave diffraction ­ bends around objects Surf zone ­ swells release energy at continental margins ­ forms breakers ­ deep water  waves reach shoaling water ­ depths less than 1/2 L ­ wave slows  down  due to friction ­ wave height increases as following waves “catches  up”  and reduces  wavelength ­ steepness reaches 1/7 ­ waves break Plunging breakers ­ curling wave crest moves over air pocket ­ formed on  moderately steep slopes Spilling breakers ­ runs down front slope of wave ­ gentle slope of ocean bottom Storm Surges ­ wind­driven hill of water moving in front of a storm front or hurricane Tsunamis ­ “tidal waves” ­ result of undersea earthquake ­ very long wavelengths ­  moving very fast ­ huge wave heights when wave slows down ­ seaward  recession of shoreline observed before wave hits Standing waves ­ waves that reflect back on themselves ­ in partly enclosed basins  Node ­ point where water level rises & falls, but water level remains stationary Antinodes ­ water surface alternates between high and low Seiche ­ a standing wave in a natural basin “Oceans and Man” ­ Water Movement ­ Lecture Notes 1 Ocean Circulation ­ currents ­ moving water masses Thermohaline ­ includes vertical movement ­ deep water masses ­ occurs at high latitudes ­ dense cold saline water sinks and moves under surface water Wind­driven ­ surface circulation ­ from atmospheric circulation Density­Driven Circulation ­ vertical water movement Thermohaline Circulation ­ density changes ­ sinking and rising of water masses  at high latitudes ­ no stratification ­ no sinking of high salinity water in  equatorial regions because temperature maintain low density ­  halocline Convergence ­ sinking water Divergence ­ rising water Upwelling ­ at divergence Downwelling ­ at convergence Deep Water Flows ­ form layers in the ocean Atlantic Ocean Deep­Water Masses North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) in North Atlantic ­ Norwegian Sea  water sinks ­ also Irminger and Labrador Seas Antarctic Bottom Water (ABW) ­ Weddell Sea ­ densest water in open  ocean ­ South Atlantic Antarctic Intermediate Water (AIW) ­ also in S Atlantic Mediterranean Water ­ high salinity ­ mixes in central water mass Pacific Ocean Deep­Water Masses ­ little Arctic Ocean water ­ mixture of NADW and ABW Indian Ocean Deep­Water Masses Antarctic Intermediate Water (AIW) ­ small amount Antarctic Circumpolar Current Wind­driven Circulation ­ result of friction Ekman Spiral ­ Coriolis effect ­ surface water moves 45 to the right of the wind  in the N. H. ­ energy passed down water column ­ each lower layer  moves  at a slower speed  and to the right of the one above it  Ekman Transport ­ net surface water movement is 90 (right  angle) to the wind ­  movement is to the left in the S. Hemisphere Horizontal Circulation ­ trade winds drive Equatorial currents ­ Westerlies in  higher latitudes  Gyres ­ large circular surface flows Western Intensification­ Western Boundary Currents ­ narrow strong currents  on west side of gyres Surface Currents Atlantic Ocean Circulation  North Atlantic gyre Gulf Stream ­ western boundary current – up to 3 knots! Equatorial Countercurrent ­ separates N. and S. gyres ­ weak current “Oceans and Man” ­ Water Movement ­ Lecture Notes 2 Labrador Current ­ mixes with Gulf Stream Norwegian Current ­ source is N. Atlantic Current Sargasso Sea ­ warm clear surface water in center of N. Atlantic gyre ­  Sargassum seaweed Pacific Ocean Circulation ­ gyres Equatorial Countercurrent ­ moves east ­ weak current South Pacific gyre West Wind Drift – moves eastwards around Antarctica North Pacific gyre Kuroshio Current ­ western boundary current Indian Ocean Circulation ­ varies from Atlantic & Pacific  Monsoon Currents – weather changes with the seasons Upwelling ­ wind­induced ­ shallow water moves away from surface ­  deep water replaces it Coastal upwelling and downwelling ­ common along margins of continents ­  Peru Current ­ seasonal changes observed on west coast of USA Eddies ­ Gulf Stream meanders ­ small pockets of warm and cold water with  circular motion

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