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Week 7 Notes

by: Katelynn Hine

Week 7 Notes MSCI B210 001

Katelynn Hine


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Test during Week 6. Sea Floor, and Water Chemistry and Salinity
Oceans and Man
Dr. Ember
Class Notes
Science, Marine
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelynn Hine on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MSCI B210 001 at University of South Carolina - Beaufort taught by Dr. Ember in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.


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Date Created: 10/06/16
“Oceans and Man” ­ The Sea Floor  ­  Notes 1 Measuring the Depths Fathoms ­ 6 feet Echo sounders ­ Depth recorder Continental Margins ­ submerged outer edge of a continent Passive Margins ­ Atlantic­type ­ “trailing edge” ­ also found around Indian Ocean &  Antarctica ­ tectonically inactive ­ do not coincide with plate boundaries Continental Shelf ­ broad, thick wedge of sediment covering granitic  continental crust ­ sedimentary profile like land ­ very wide on passive  margin, narrow on active margin ­ very nearly horizontal Shelf Break ­ rate of slope increases ­ abrupt transition Continental Slope ­ steeper slope than shelf ­ end at continental rise Submarine Canyons ­ resemble canyons cut by rivers on land  ­ actually cut by rivers of sediment into cont. slope  Turbidity currents ­ underwater avalanche ­ mixing of water and  sediment as result of earthquake under slope ­ dense mud flows  down ­ steeper the rate of slope, the more canyons present Turbidites ­ turbidity current slows down ­ sediment settles ­ layered  pattern: coarse on bottom, fine sediments on top Deep­Sea fans ­ wedge of sediment Continental Rise ­ result of merging fans ­ sediment covers the edge of the  oceanic crust Active Margins ­ Pacific­type ­ “leading edge” ­ tectonically active ­ coincide with  plate boundaries ­ narrow shelves The Ocean Basins Floor ­ sea floor beyond the continental margin ­ 30% of Earth’s surface Abyssal Plains ­ usually below 4000 meters (13,120 ft.) ­ very flat ­ covered in  sediments from deep­sea fans Abyssal Hills ­ low hills ­ volcanic in origin ­ sediment not thick enough to cover them  ­ most common topography Seamounts ­ tall, steep­sided volcanic peaks ­ Coral Reef Island Development ­ Darwin ­ where seamounts break  the ocean  surface in warm waters Fringing reefs ­ on margin of land mass Barrier reefs ­ separated from land by lagoon Atolls ­ around margin of sinking volcanic island Guyots ­ flattened by erosion ­ seamounts that once penetrated the sea surface Oceanic Ridges and Rises ­ continuous mountainous features – chains of young, new  oceanic crust forming at the spreading centers ­ not covered by sediment ­ rises up  to 2 km above sea floor ­ as crust cools, it sinks and subsides ­ slowly spreading  ridges are steeper than rises because slowly diverging sea floor cools and shrinks  closer to the spreading center ­ridge has thicker crust    Rift Valley ­ central part of ridge where the youngest rock is being formed ­ sections are  offset by transform faults and fracture zones “Oceans and Man” ­ The Sea Floor  ­  Notes 2 Trenches ­ Pacific Ocean ­ converging plates collide Island Arcs ­ trenches found on seaward side of chain of volcanic islands, trenches  also found on seaward side of chain of volcanoes on land (Peru­Chile Trench) Hot Spots ­ isolated volcanic activity ­ hot magma from deep within  the mantle  channeled to surface Seamounts ­ formed by hot spots on ocean floor ­ line of seamounts seen  where crust passes over hot spot  Island Chains ­ seamounts break surface of ocean ­ Hawaii Subsidence ­ eroded, inactive seamount moves below surface Guyots – flat­topped tablemount “Oceans and Man”  ­  Water Chemistry & Salinity  ­  Notes 1 Water  ­  essential ingredient for life Properties of Water 1) Polar Molecule Oxygen ­ Electronegative end of molecule Hydrogen ­ Electropositive end of molecule Hydrogen Bonding (HB) ­ molecules cling together ­  w/o HB, water would boil at ­80C and freeze  at ­100C, making life impossible  2) Universal Solvent Facilitates chemical reactions within both living and nonliving  systems ­ ions separate in water and dissolve to form  solutions 3) Cohesive and Adhesive ­ water flows freely, but molecules do not break apart (HB), also cling to surfaces, especially polar surfaces 4) Prevents rapid temperature change ­ Heat Capacity Absorbs heat effectively ­ temperature of liquid water rises and falls slowly, protects organisms ­ maintain normal internal temperatures 6) Ice is less dense than liquid water ­ as water cools, molecules move  closer together, below 4C, molecules stop moving, HB­ing  becomes more rigid, but crystal structure is more  open. Lakes freeze from top down ­ ice acts as insulator, prevents  water below from freezing Transmission of Light in Seawater:  Electromagnetic Spectrum ­ ocean is blue because of scattering of short  wavelengths of solar radiation by water molecules ­ dissolved  organic  particles scatter longer wavelength and the ocean appears  green.  Chlorophyll also colors the water.  Visible spectrum ­  longer wavelengths  don’t travel as deeply (absorbed by water) Turbidity ­ amount of suspended material in the water ­ increasing turbidity  increase absorption, which decreases the transmission of visible  light. Sound Transmission Travels faster in water than through air ­ Sound waves used to measure the ocean’s depth ­ even reveals layers of sediment Salinity   Salinity ­ Composition of Seawater Salts ­ ions that dissolve in water Major and Minor Constituents “Oceans and Man”  ­  Water Chemistry & Salinity  ­  Notes 2 + ­ Sodium (Na ) and Chloride (Cl ) are the most common ions Also:  Potassium (K ), Calcium (Ca ), Magnesium (Mg ), Sulfate (SO ) 42­ Nutrients ­ Nitrate, Phosphate, Silicate ­ very important for life Gases ­ Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Photosynthesis and Respiration The Oxygen Minimum ­ used by biological activity Anoxic Basins ­ all oxygen is used up Acids and Bases The pH Scale ­ Range from 0 to 14, pure water is 7 (neutral  pH).   Acids lower pH.  Bases increase pH. Buffers – for pH stability in organisms, maintain a pH of ~ 7, built­in mechanisms  prevent pH changes, buffers are chemicals or combinations of  chemicals  that can both take up or release hydrogen ions.  First,  carbon dioxide from  the atmosphere dissolves in seawater to form  carbonic acid. CO  2 H O 2 H CO   2Carb3nic Acid) Carbonic acid is a weak acid that does not totally dissociate: + ­ H 2O   3  H   +  HCO   (Bic3rbonate Ion) The bicarbonate ion can further dissociate into the carbonate ion: ­ + = HCO   3  H   +  CO   (Car3onate Ion) The Carbon Dioxide (Carbonate) Buffer System The carbonate buffer system keep the seawater pH within safe range for  living things despite the many biochemical reactions that release or  take  up ions.  The equation can move in either direction: CO  + H O  H CO   H  + HCO   H  + CO ­ + = 2 2 2 3 3 3 “Oceans and Man”  ­  Water Chemistry & Salinity  ­  Notes 3


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