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Geog 101, Week 5

by: Francesca Notetaker

Geog 101, Week 5 101

Francesca Notetaker
California State University Northridge
GPA 4.0
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About this Document

Notes from 10/07
Geog 101
Mia Dittmer
Class Notes




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Francesca Notetaker on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at California State University Northridge taught by Mia Dittmer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Geog 101 in Geography at California State University Northridge.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
3. Mesosphere Within mesosphere temperatures decrease with increasing height. The mesosphere is the coldest layer of the atmosphere. We have no absorption of any form of radiation. 4. Thermosphere Within thermosphere temperatures increase with increasing height. (It gets warmer as you go up). This is the warmest layer of the atmosphere. Oxygen molecules are absorbing another form of radiation. a. Phenomenon of Aurora Borealis (“northern lights”) and Aurora Australis (“southern lights”). They are glowing lights across the sky. b. Theoretical top of the atmosphere: 300 miles up. [no section 2, part A and B] III. Continental vs Maritime Conditions A. Continental climate Land heats more rapidly and to higher temperatures than water and conversely cools more rapidly and to lower temperatures than water. Land is subject to extremes in temperatures. ● Temperature range: difference between high and low temperatures. ● Specific heat: amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of any substance by a degree (Water needs 3 times more heat energy than land. 1. Inland location 2. Winters cold 3. Summers hot 4. Large daily temp range 5. Large seasonal temp range 6. Low relative humidities (less absorption of sunshine, low amount of reflectivity, loss of sunlight.) B. Maritime climate 1. Coastal location 2. Winters cool 3. Summers warm 4. Small daily temp range 5. Small seasonal temp range 6. High relative humidities (MOIST) C. Continentality: is the tendency of a large land mass to impose a large annual temperature range at the anterior of a continent. Atmospheric and Ocean Circulation I. Wind and the pressure gradient force A. Pressure Gradient Force (P.G.F.): is the force which results when there is a difference in pressure across a surface. B. Factors affecting wind speed 1. A​ rapid change in pressure o ​ ver a short distance leads to faster wind speeds. If distance is greater, the pressure is going to lead to stronger winds. Air always moves from ​high to low pressure (there are no exceptions). 2. Friction: ​ ncrease friction, wind speeds get slower. Buildings slows down the wind. Vegetation slows wind speeds down. High wind speed: ocean, desert, ice sheets. 3. Compression of wind flow​ speeds up wind. Found in mountain canyon and/or passes, over the tops of mountains. a) Tehachapi pass: windy because of the difference in pressure of the places that this area connect. Other famous passes: Altamont pass, San Gorgonio pass. C. Small scale (local winds) 1. Sea and land breezes a) Sea breeze (day)​ controlled by temperature differences between land and ocean. b) Land breeze (night) II. Coriolis effect (mathematical formula) A. Rotation of Earth a. It’s the effect of the earth's rotation on any moving object. (It can be wind, ocean currents, ships, planes, missiles..) B. Deflection of air flow a. The effect is the apparent deflection of movement from a straight line. b. Coriolis does ​not​ affect wind speed, it ONLY impacts ​direction​. c. The effect is strongest at the poles, and there's no effect at the Equator. d. The effect increases as velocity of your object increases. ● Northern atmosphere: deflection is to the right ● Souther atmosphere: deflection is to the left III. Wind and pressure systems A. Three forces acting on wind patterns at the surface a. Pressure gradient force​ (P.G.F.): wind moves from high to low because of pressure. b. Coriolis effect​: does not allow the wind to go straight (will change how it gets from high to low). c. Friction​. If we have increased friction, the wind speed slows down, and the coriolis effect decreases. If friction decreases, wind speed and coriolis effect increase. B. Cyclones and anticyclones (handout) N. Hem. :


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