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Chapter 2 Notes

by: Sarah Morse

Chapter 2 Notes Hist

Sarah Morse
Northwest Missouri State University
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Chapter 2 Notes Book Notes The English Background Settling the American Colonies Slavery and Servitude in the Colonies
US History to 1877
Dr. Ford
Class Notes
Chapter, 2, notes, two, history, United, States, USA, America, Book, english, background, settling, The, american, colonies, slavery, nd, servitude




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Date Created: 10/06/16
09.12.16 CHAPTER 2: ENGLAND AND ITS AMERICAN COLONIES THE ENGLISH BACKGROUND PEOPLE AND PROFITS I. English colonies were private business ventures a. Not government enterprises b. Expensive II. Joint stock companies a. Businesses owned by investors, who purchase shares of stock and share all the profits and losses. III. Royal charters IV. English settlements a. Compact b. Didn’t focus on conquering c. Less numerous, more scattered, less wealthy V. 1750, English colonists outnumbered French 20 to 1 a. 13 million to 70,000 b. 20,000 Spaniards VI. primary goals a. Valuable raw material b. Consumer market VII.Population a. Social rebels (convicts), religious dissenters, homeless, landless b. Reduced social and economic tensions at home VIII. Offered them land POLITICAL TRADITIONS I. Parliament a. Imposed taxes II. Magna Carta (1215) a. Great charter b. No one was above the law RELIGIOUS CONFLICT AND WAR I. King James I (Elizabeth’s cousin) a. Puritans i. English religious dissenters who sought to purify the church of England of its catholic practices. b. Puritans wanted to worship God in plain, self-governing congregations without all the formal trappings of catholic and Anglican ceremonies and wealth. c. Banished puritans d. Separatists and nonconformists were hunted and persecuted e. Eventually sailed to America as pilgrims II. King Charles I a. Stubborn defender of royal power b. Disbanded parliament c. Raised taxes, persecuted puritans i. They fled to America d. Scotland revolted e. Charles revived parliament for help with money for an army i. They refused f. Puritans took parliament g. Civil war i. Royalists v. parliamentarians h. Captured King Charles i. Beheaded III. Oliver Cromwell a. Military dictator, puritan b. Died IV. King Charles II a. Ruled jointly with parliament V. King James II a. Younger brother to King Charles II b. Catholicism, defied parliament, appointed roman Catholics to positions VI. Mary Stuart and William III of Orange a. Joint monarchs b. Invaded i. James fled to France c. Glorious revolution d. Parliament reasserted its right to counter balance the monarchy SETTLING THE AMERICAN COLONIES THE CHESAPEAKE REGION I. 1606, King James I, joint-stock enterprise, Virginia company a. Gold and silver b. Religious mission c. Grew tobacco JAMESTOWN II. Chesapeake bay, 40 miles inland III. Names after King James I IV. Starvation led to mild cannibalism V. Captain John Smith, mercenary a. Strict military discipline b. Forced all to work VI. Virginia company shifted focus to the sale of land a. Give land to settlers after 7 years VII.Tobacco a. Cash crop b. Grown in Caribbean, Virginia, and Maryland VIII. 1618, Sir Edwin Sandys, head of Virginia company IX. Headright a. Land-grant policy that promised fifty acres to any colonist who could afford passage to Virginia. 2 X. Legislature XI. July 30, 1619; general assembly, Jamestown church a. Ninety young women arrived b. Dutch ship brought first Africans to English America XII.1624, 14,000 English migrated, population was 1,132 a. People died XIII. Virginia became royal colony a. Sir William Berkeley, royal governor 1642 MARYLAND I. 1934, Chesapeake Bay a. named after English queen II. first proprietary colony a. owned by individual b. Sir George Calvert, aka Lord Baltimore c. Calvert converted to Catholicism, requested a charter, then died III. Son, Cecilius Calvert, received charter a. Founded Maryland IV. 1634, Cecilius and Leonard recruited families for new colony. V. Focused on tobacco initially, more successful than Virginia, access to coastline and shipping. VI. Toleration Act (1649) a. Welcomed all Christians b. In response to Cromwell’s control in Europe, worried would lose colony VII.Protestants seized control of government and rescinded Toleration Act in 1954. a. Drove Lord Baltimore out of colony b. Catholicism was banned in Maryland until American Revolution NEW ENGLAND I. Middle class, larger families a. Few servants b. No elite plantation owners II. Colder climate a. Avoided infectious diseases i. Malaria PLYMOUTH I. Pilgrims were separatists II. 100 pilgrims came over in mayflower III. 41 signed the mayflower compact a. a formal agreement signed by the separatist colonists aboard the mayflower to abide by laws made by leaders of their choosing. IV. Lived in deserted Indian village V. Model Christian society a. God’s commandments VI. Absorbed by Massachusetts bay Colony MASSACHUSETTS BAY 3 I. English colony founded by puritans in 1630 as a haven for persecuted Congregationalists. II. Holy commonwealth III. Purify church of England from within IV. Governed by congregation V. 1629, King Charles I shutdown parliament a. sent charter to Massachusetts Bay b. Transferred government authority from London to Massachusetts. VI. Winthrop hated democracy VII.1644, general court organized itself. a. House of Lords = House of Assistants b. House of Commons = House of Deputies RHODE ISLAND I. Roger Williams (1602-1683) a. Caused problems, separatist b. Banished to England c. Escaped to Narragansett Indians d. 1636, bought their land II. Complete freedom of religion a. Democratic b. Governed by heads of households c. Welcomed all CONNECTICUT, NEW HAMPSHIRE, AND MAINE I. Reverend Thomas Hooker a. Let three church congregations from Massachusetts to Connecticut II. 1639, Connecticut general court adopted the fundamental orders a. A series of laws b. Christian commonwealth c. Voting was not limited to church members III. New Hampshire and Maine were granted to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason in 1622 a. Mason took New Hampshire b. Gorges took Maine IV. 1640s Massachusetts took over New Hampshire and extended to Maine in 1650s. a. 1678 English decided against Massachusetts in both cases. b. 1679 New Hampshire became a royal colony c. 1691 Massachusetts officially incorporated Maine THE CAROLINAS I. Carolina Colonies a. English proprietary colonies comprised of North and South Carolina, whose semitropical climate made them profitable centers of rice, timber, and tar production. II. Albemarle a. Settled in 1650s b. Colonists who had drifted south from Virginia c. Remote scattering of farmers along the shores 4 III. 1669, Charleston a. Half the southern Carolina colonists came from Barbados and other English island colonies in the Caribbean b. Brought African slaves IV. 1712, divided into north and south. V. Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina a. Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper, John Locke b. Large land grants to prominent Englishmen VI. Religious toleration VII.South Carolina became a royal colony in 1719 VIII. North Carolina became a royal colony in 1729 IX. Rice a. Commercial crop b. Semitropical coastal areas c. Labor intensive X. Huge forests a. Lumber and tar b. Hence tarheels THE MIDDLE COLONIES AND GEORGIA I. New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania. NEW NETHERLANDS BECOMES NEW YORK I. New Netherland a. Dutch colony conquered by the English in 1667, out of which four new colonies were created. II. Dutch East India Company a. Hired Henry Hudson to explore America in hopes of finding a northwest passage b. Hudson discovered Delaware bay and sailed up the Hudson River into New York III. Profit making enterprise a. Fur trading posts b. 1626, Dutch purchased Manhattan from Indians IV. New Amsterdam = New York City V. 1638, Swedish trading company established Fort Christina a. Wilmington, Delaware b. Dutch took from Sweden in 1655 VI. Governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered the colony to the English a. Duke of York, King James II b. Name New York in honor of him VII.Renamed Fort Orange, Albany VIII. 1654, French ship arrived in New Amsterdam a. First Jewish settlers IX. 1773, Jews represented only one tenth of one percent of the entire colonial population NEW JERSEY I. James Stuart, Duke of York 5 a. Granted New Jersey to George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley i. Brother of Virginia’s governor b. Initially split into East and West Jersey c. 1702, became single royal colony of New Jersey. PENNSYLVANIA I. Quakers a. Rebelled against all forms of political and religious authority II. Quakers suffered intense persecution a. New England puritans banned them, tortured them, and executed them. III. William Penn’s Quaker Commonwealth a. Inherited a substantial estate, land in America b. Pennsylvania c. Encouraged people of different religions to settle there d. 1681, Philadelphia DELAWARE I. 1682, Duke of York also granted Penn Delaware a. Former Dutch territory b. Named in honor of Thomas West, Baron De La Warr (1577-1618) II. 1704, Delaware became part of Pennsylvania a. Granted the right to choose its own legislative assembly. b. Until the American Revolution, Delaware had a separate assembly but shared Pennsylvania’s governor GEORGIA I. Last of colonies to be established II. 1732, King George II gave land to 21 trustees a. Province of Georgia b. Named after the King III. Military buffer: Succeeded a. Against Spanish Florida IV. Social Experiment: Failed a. Bringing together settlers from different countries and religions V. Head of colony a. General James E. Oglethorpe VI. Slave centered society NATIVE PEOPLE AND ENGLISH SETTLERS FOOD AND LAND I. Native peoples were fragmented. a. Often fought amongst themselves over disputed land. b. English established separate communities near Indian villages. II. John Ratcliffe a. Initial leader b. Captured, skinned alive by women with oyster shells, then burned. III. John Smith a. Effective leader 6 b. Traded with Indians and learned how to grow corn. c. Was rescued by Pocahontas. IV. 1616, tobacco flourished, lust for land increased. V. 1622, Indians attacked 28 farms and plantations. a. English retaliated by decimating the Indian peoples of Virginia. VI. Powhatan Confederacy a. An alliance of several powerful Algonquian tribes under the leadership of Chief Powhatan, organized into thirty chiefdoms along much of the Atlantic coast in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. BACON’S REBELLION I. Largest planters bought most fertile land. a. Freed servants became farm workers or claimed less fertile land inland. II. 1676, a fourth of free white me in Virginia were landless. a. Forcing them to roam the countryside, squat on private property, work at odd jobs, poach, or commit crimes. III. Mid 1670s, falling tobacco prices, rising taxes, and freed servants wanting land led to Bacon’s Rebellion. a. Unsuccessful revolt led by planter Nathaniel Bacon against Virginia governor William Berkley’s administration, which, Bacon charged, has failed to protect settlers from Indian raids. b. Main reason Berkeley didn’t side with Bacon against the Indians was because he didn’t want to disrupt trade. c. Declaration of People of Virginia d. Burned Jamestown. i. Bacon died a month later, Berkeley a year later. NATIVE AMERICANS AND CHRISTIANITY I. 1621, Pilgrims were struggling with hunger and disease. a. Depended on Indians for survival. b. Pilgrims aggressively tried to convert Indians to Christianity and civilized living. c. Roger Williams i. Viewed as radical. ii. Believed all faiths should be treated equally. II. William Penn’s careful policy of purchasing land from Indians and learning their language held peace between the Quakers and Indians for fifty years. THE PEQUOT WAR I. 1636, Mass. Accused Pequot of murder. a. Set fire to their village and killed those who fled the flames. b. Sassacus counterattacked. II. Pequot War of 1637 a. Treaty of Hartford (1638) i. Pequot nation was dissolved. KING PHILIP’S WAR I. 1675, Indians and settlers feared each other. II. Metacomet, Chief of the Wampanoags (aka King Philip) 7 a. Resented English efforts to convert the Indians. III. 1674, John Sassamon, Christian Indian, warned the English of the Wampanoags preparing for war. a. Was found dead in a frozen pond. b. English convicted three Indians of the murder and hanged them. c. June 20, 1675, Indians burned puritan farms. d. English shot an Indian. e. Indians beheaded puritans. IV. King Philip’s War (Metacomet’s War) a. A war in New England resulting from the escalation of tensions between Native Americans and English settlers and their dispossessing the region’s Native Americans of most of their land. b. Surprise attack from English killing 300 warriors and 400 women and children. c. Indians retaliated by destroying Providence, Rhode Island. V. America’s first conscription of laws. a. Drafting into the militia all males between the ages of sixteen to sixty. VI. Indians were wore down after staggering casualties and shortages. a. Some surrendered. b. Many succumbed to disease. c. Others fled west. d. Who remained were forced to move to supervised villages. VII.Metacomet initially escaped but was soon hunted down and captured. a. Colonists marched his severed head to Plymouth. b. It was displayed on a pole for twenty years. ENSLAVING INDIANS IN CAROLINA I. 1699 to 1715, Carolina exported to England an average of 54,000 per year. a. Leather gloves, belts, hats, work aprons, and book bindings. II. Captured and enslaved Indians. III. Carolina wanted to focus on producing profitable crops. a. Land had to be cleared, crops planted, harvested, transported, and sold. b. Required laborers. c. Slaves and servants were expensive. IV. Profitability of captive Indian workers. a. 50,000 Indians were sold as slaves between 1670 and 1715. THE IROQUOIS LEAGUE I. Before 1600, Iroquois Nations forged alliance. a. Outnumbered Dutch. i. English were forced to work with them for beaver pelts. b. Fifty chiefs and 12,000 members. II. Iroquois League a. An alliance of the Iroquois nations, originally formed sometime between 1450 and 1600, that used their combined strength to pressure Europeans to work with them in fur trade and to wage war across what is today eastern North America. b. Haudenosaunee. c. Great law of peace i. Peace, equity, justice. 8 ii. Power to the people. III. 1690s, French destroyed their crops, infected them with small pox, and reduced the male population by a third. IV. Made peace with French in 1701. SLAVERY AND SERVITUDE IN THE COLONIES INDENTURED SERVITUDE I. Chesapeake Bay grew so fast that they needed more workers than settlers. a. 1619, connection between growing tobacco and workers was clear. II. Indentured Servant a. Settler who signed on for a temporary period of servitude to a master in exchange for passage to the New World. b. Indenture i. Contract c. 500,000 immigrants to American from 1610 to 1775, 350,000 were indentured servants. d. Homeless children in London were kidnapped to serve in America. e. 1717, parliament declared that convicts could avoid hanging by relocating. III. Servants were provided food and bed, but rights were limited. a. A middle rank between slaves and free men. i. Could own property. ii. Couldn’t trade. iii. Permission to marry by master. iv. Whipped for bad behavior. SLAVERY IN NORTH AMERICA I. 1700, Africans made up 11% of population. a. Minority in New England. b. “Family slavery” i. Masters and slaves lived together. II. Chesapeake. a. Large plantations. b. 1730, self-sustaining rate of population growth. c. 1750, 80% of slaves were born there. AFRICAN ROOTS I. Largest forced migration in world history. a. Ten million Africans made the journey. b. Majority to Brazil and Caribbean. II. Spoke 50 different languages and worshipped many gods. III. Came from kingdoms and villages. IV. Warfare was constant. a. Conquered, kidnapped, enslaved, and sold. V. African slavery was less brutal than race based slavery of America. VI. Slave forts a. Branded, chained, and loaded. VII.Middle Passage 9 a. The hellish and often deadly middle leg of the transatlantic triangular trade in which European ships carried manufactured goods to Africa, then transported enslaved Africans to the Americas and Caribbean, and finally conveyed American agricultural products back to Europe. b. One in six captives died along the way. c. One in every ten ships revolted during crossing. VIII. Slavery was driven by high profits and racism a. Slaves were property and sold at auctions. i. Property = chattel. b. Slaves were organized into work gangs c. Supervised by black drivers d. White overseers IX. Quartered in barracks X. Few survived in Caribbean due to brutal working conditions. SLAVE CULTURE I. Most colonies outlawed slave marriages. a. Many whites believed slaves would work harder and be more stable with families. b. Gender roles i. Women were field workers as well as wives and mothers THRIVING COLONIES I. English America became the most populous, prosperous, and powerful of the European empires. a. Hard labor, desperation, and early death were negatives. b. Exploited Indians, indentured servants, and Africans. II. Colonies were self-governing and profitable. a. Spain and France stifled innovation. b. English organized colonies as profit making enterprises with minimum royal control. III. Self-government, were more dynamic and creative. 10


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