Psych 111, Week 7 Notes
Psych 111, Week 7 Notes Psychology 111
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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Auger on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 111 at Emory University taught by Dr. Delawalla in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology II in Psychology (PSYC) at Emory University.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Gender and Sexuality Monday, October 3, 2016 11:28 AM "Men are from Mars, women are from Venus" Overview: o Differences between men and women Statistically significant? Clinically significant? A statistical way to look and see if something is significant is to look at an effect size o Small effect size: close to zero means two groups have a lot of overlap and any differences are very small o Large Effect size: larger means two groups are very different, little overlap o When we're talking about gender, we usually have very small effect sizes The differences within gender (individuals) is much larger then differences between genders (groups) Gender differences and similarities o Compared to men, women (as a group) start puberty two years earlier Live five years longer 70% more fat 40% less muscle 5 inches shorter Express more emotion Are more vulnerable to anxiety, depression Less prone to autism, alcoholism, ADHD, antisocial personality, and suicide o Men and women have similar levels of intelligence and happiness Gender and social communication o Women communicate more than men More time with friends More texts Longer phone calls But men and women speak about the same number of words per day, so what's the deal with the longer phone calls? Listening? o We use social communication differently Men state their opinions and offer solutions Men speak about things and actions Women seek input and explore relationships Women speak more about people and feelings Gender and Social Power o In most cultures, men are more likely to have social power Positions controlling more people and resources There are no cultures in which women dominate men (in that same way) Some are more egalitarian Men tend to act in more dominating ways than women Often speak about opinions rather than offering support and inviting input as women do Men behave more aggressively than women These behaviors can be seen in childhood as well When boys play, the focus is on the activity (basketball) Male play is more competitive Boys tend to dictate how the playtime will proceed in a mixed group When girls play, focus tends to be on the connection and conversation Female play is more social Girls tend to invite feedback (when they're deciding what to do) Is this nature or nurture? There is some natural influence Gender development? o Sex: the biologically influenced characteristics by which people define males or females o Gender: the physical, social, and behavioral characteristics that are culturally associated with male and female roles and identity Gender Identity: the product of the interplay among biological dispositions, developmental experiences, and the current situation The Biology of Gender o Biology doesn’t determine gender but it can influence is in two ways Genetic: males and females have different sex chromosomes (XX or XY) Physiological: males and females have differing concentrations of sex hormones Hormones effect how body and brain develop Prenatal sexual development: Around 7th week: Y chromosome engages testes to develop and produce testosterone Body Development Primary sex characteristics: reproductive organs Secondary sex characteristics: body hair, changing voice, boobs Brain Differences (statistically significant) In adulthood, women have thicker areas in a part of the frontal lobes that help with verbal fluency There are also differences in the amygdala, hippocampus, and ratio of cell bodies to axons. o Correlation between biological development and gender identity We don't know how much social influences have affect (does identifying as male or female cause those differences to develop?) Gender Role: the Influence of Culture o Culture Influences gender roles Gender schemas: the cognitive frameworks for developing concepts of "male" and "female"; these frameworks guide our observations Social Learning Theory: we learn gender role behavior by imitation, and by rewards and punishments that shape our behavior Gender Typing: the instinct which drives some children to fit into traditional gender roles (more inborn) Sweden made an effort to integrate boys and girls with toys in catalogs Canadian couple is trying to raise a genderless baby Personality can influence gender identity (I'm a female, but I'm rebellious, so I wanna take on male characteristics.) Variations in sexual development o Intersex Characteristics Some people biologically develop with a combination of male and female physical characteristics, despite being genetically male or female. Androgyny: Displaying both traditionally masculine and feminine psychological characteristics Transgender: People whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex Evolutionary Explanations of Gender Differences o Gender role division appears as an adaptation to the challenges faced by the ancestral humans in the EEA Equipped with "instincts" that enabled our ancestors to survive and reproduce o Two sexes developed different strategies to ensure their survival and reproductive success Men and women occupied different social roles Men hunt, women mommy This worked b/c women had breast milk and men didn't Men also possess physical characteristics that make them better hunters Traits are probably passed down genetically o Generally men (today) Think more about sex than women More likely to be okay with casual sex (b/c they evolutionarily want to pass down DNA Tend to be attracted to younger females o Generally women (today) Emotional and cognitive factors play a greater role in sexual response Men with power and status are more attractive to women (if they're more selective they're more likely to have enough resources to survive) o Men and women employed different strategies for reproductive success For men, there is a minimal cost for promiscuity and potentially great advantages For women, reproductive costs are much higher o Men and women look for different qualities in mate Women want someone who'll take care of her and the baby emotionally and materially Men want someone with youth, which is related to fertility o Can evolution explain… Why men behave with more dominant and aggressive ways? Yes, bc in our EEA those things made men get more material resources Greater resources led to better reproductive success Why women are more egalitarian, support instead of solutions? Traditional role of nurturing young children Want to share responsibilities and resources of childcare o Evolutionary perspective explains the "nature" part Universal, not specific to one person Nature and nurture interact; as societies become more and more egalitarian, differences between men and women grow even smaller Sexual Orientation o Not the same as gender identity o One's preferences as an object of sexual attraction; are you attracted to guys or girls or both or neither etc. Identity typically emerges around puberty o How many people are exclusively homosexual? 3% men say yes 1-2% women say yes o How many people have engaged in "some same-sex behavior" 7% of men 16% of women o Sexuality is fluid Even more so in women Sexual Orientation and Mental Health o Homosexuality was considered as a psychological disorder until 40 years ago Meant it had to be treated People don't think this way anymore, but there's still some stigma Puts you at greater risk for anxiety and mood disorders due to Difficulty in finding a satisfying and loving relationship Stress of discrimination and isolation 28 states don't offer protection against LGB employment discrimination Think it is a conscious lifestyle choice, the wrong choice o Correlates of sexual orientation LeVay did post mortem analyses on the brains of women, gay men, and straight men Some in the sample had died of AIDS LeVay was blind to sexual orientation Results: Small cluster of cells in the hypothalamus was different between straight men and gay men Larger in men than in women Larger in heterosexual than in homosexual men Results have been replicated in another study of gay and straight men Similar differences noted in gay and straight sheep Might suggest biological or genetic link, but we don't know what causes what Is sexual orientation genetic? It does have a genetic basis Evidence: homosexuality is seen in non-human species (swans, sheep, gulls, dolphins, monkeys) Evidence: in fruit flies, a difference in one gene determines sexual orientation and behavior Evidence: identical twins are more likely to be concordant on sexual orientation Is sexual orientation environmental? Partly; non-genetic factors also influence Factors mostly in utero, not so much external In mammals, if you expose female fetus to more than usual testosterone or male fetus to less than normal levels of testosterone, often grow up with: Bodies, brains, and faces with traits of opposite sex Sexual attraction expected of the opposite sex to one's own sex In humans, sex hormones have an organizing effect on the brain around six months of gestation Hormones that influence gender can also play a role in influencing sexual orientation Identical twins who share 100% of genes aren't 100% concordant on sexual orientation Can the evolutionary perspective explain… o Homosexual behavior? Kin selection-- homosexuals help raise the young of their extended families Not looking at today's society People are more likely to share resources with family, so they're more likely to survive and they apparently have some kind of homosexual DNA By-product Human sexuality is not just functional but recreational Bonobo (mammals) societies use sex (often homosexual sex) for social affiliation They're prostituting themselves Homosexual relations can let you use sex socially without the risk of pregnancy
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