HIST 3045, Week 6 Notes
HIST 3045, Week 6 Notes HIST 3045
Popular in International History of the Cold War
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Jok on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3045 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Paul Pitman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see International History of the Cold War in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
International History of the Cold War 4 October 2016 Post War Key Events: • May 1950 - "O" in NATO • Oct o EDC proposal o agreement on w. German rearmament • Feb '52 - Lisbon Accords, 96 division • Aug '54 - EDC Defeat • Oct '54 - Paris Accords • May '55 - Germany in NATO • May '56 - 1st Offset Agreement (FRG, US, UK) • 1956 - Poland, Hungary, Suez • Gomutka • Comecon (CMEA) 1949 • Warsaw Pact 1955 o Soviet Union promises to protect the eastern countries against invitation • We are used to talking about Soviets invading in the east, but at this point in time, they are protecting them. Settlements - Basically a deal, which means there was initially a problem Results in the West • Liberal/Parliamentary Democracy with a social market economy • Third Peace = Collective Defense o Western System where the US and allies have a bunch of alliances. • Was the Post-War Settlement stable? What held it together? What made it possible for it to last? What were the threats? o Came apart in the early 1970s and replaced with the current arrangement Results in the East • Communist Party rule • Planned socialist economy o Management o Skilled workers o Out: Peasants and ethnic minorities. • Ironic that communist is supposed to be an internationalist movement but becomes national regimes. What are the Systems put in place in the Eastern Countries? Argument: both East and West are stable as long as their economies are stable. What are the basic institutions in the Soviet Union or Eastern Europe and how long will they last? Cold War = Who is going to win? Capitalism or Communism Put in place at the end of world war 2: • Phases: 1. National Front Governments by 1944-47 o Too often people think communism just rolled into Eastern Europe, but rather it was a long and slow process. o What do the Soviets want in Eastern Europe after 1945? • Control • Buffer Zone (Security) § Security: Something you can sell to the public § Friendly regimes on the borders that will keep Germany from invading § Are looking to see communist regimes to eventually be established (but Stalin moves slowly) • End of WW2: National Front Governments - all the parties that were opposed to the Nazis • Ex: East Germany had a combination of communist and socialist parties • Ex: Poland had agrarian parties • In each of these countries, rather than eliminating them, the Soviets join these parties in a national fronts against the Germans (find a common enemy & shoot for security) • Who is included? • The US wanted Non-Communist parties (they comply for relations reasons) • Anyone against Germany § Is Security Different from control? (Yes) o Happened: • Land reform = 3 million families get farms (large landowners who allied with Nazis get their land taken from them) • Nationalize industry (still not a communist government) • Big social changes 2. End of Diversity (communist took over); 47-48 o National Front Regimes replaced by Communist regimes o Why? • Avoid losing control § As long as there is competition between parties (i.e. coalition governments), you're open to western influence and power struggles • Get Resources for Eastern Europe § Context of the Marshall Plan 3. People's Democracies 48 o Series of Purge trials • Government run by the communist (who are quite diverse) • Major senior political figures would confess in public that they were secretly spies working for the capitalist after which they would be executed o Elimination of Peasant Agriculture • The biggest class of people who just got their land • Most of the peasants put most of their efforts into the garden plots and house animals thus collectivization of farms doesn't work out (for this among other reasons) § Transferring resources into the Soviet Union • Need to invest • Squeeze consumption § 5 year plans…. o East Central Europe • Ended up transferring billions worth in resources to the Soviet Union • Rather than host states providing for client states, client states transferred to the host. o What will hold this together? • Can be thought about as an Economic System and as a Political System § As a political system, these countries are run by the communist party which is the most powerful entity § The way the Soviet Empire works is relationships between fraternal parties. • Creates a new elite (the old elite were military officers and land owners) • New = leaders of the communist party § Economic settlement: State ownership and collective agriculture, planning… not a market economy and surplus is going into industry which means that ordinary working individuals are sacrificing their wage for the common good • Who benefits from this and how long is it going to last? • New class of elites Nuclear Strategy and Alliance Politics (50 - 58) • When did the soviets get nuclear weapons • What did they plan to do with them and did they include their other Eastern Allies in these discussions? • Military Balance Seen from the West: o What was the strategic balance seen from the west in the 1950s • (i.e. why does NATO exist?) § Make sure resources are effectively utilized § Fear a soviet invasion • What is the west going to do about it? § Conventional Defense § Nuclear Defense o Claim: Despite everyone being nervous, the Soviet Union was never really a significant military threat during this time period • Argue: 1950-54 the first set of decision are that we need to rearm. (rearmament in NSC 68) § US triples Defense Spending in 1950 and moves 4 divisions to Germany and goes to all of the allied countries and tells them to up military spending § Right before the Korean war there is a meeting of the North Atlantic Council (NAC) and they set up NATO and named someone to be the supreme Allied commander of Europe and set up a military committee to put together defense plans § The Korean War occurs § U.S. has ~ 300 nuclear weapons § Soviets have ~ 4 § The West is strong in the Air and on the Sea, the Soviets are strong on land. • Estimated that the soviets had 190 divisions and the west had 10, but the Air power and nuclear power cancels this out. (but more like 90 western divisions) § At this time the West over estimates the Soviets and their preparations • Agreement on W. German Rearmament • 4 year debate about how to rearm Germany • French demand the European Defense Committee Proposal (rejected by the French parliament in 1954) • Paris Accords 1954 § 8 treaties that stet the terms for German Rearmament. (23 Oct. 1954) • Will be under NATO command all the time • Germany promises not to produced atomic…. • CAN acquire them by gift or produce them outside of their territory or with the authorization of Europe Peaceful Coexistence (1953 - 58) Crisis Years (58 - 62) • "Classic cold war years" • Cuban Missile Crisis = '62 • The Outcome is for the first time the US and Soviets try to negotiate arrangements to stabilize the competition between them o Hotline o First Arms control settlement 6 October 2016 Key terms: • Imre Nage • Gomulka • Eisenhower • Dulles • Détente • Adenauer • Walter Ulbricht • Jonathan Eden • Harold MacMillan • Sputnik • Thor • Jupiters • Military Committee 48: Document that says that when the war starts, we will shoot tactical nuclear weapons. Nukes and Alliance • Balance in the 1950's o United States wants control of Nuclear Weapons o August of 1954 report • Will be possible to defend Central Europe (Forward Defense) § Who pays for it? Who provides the men? Who gets the nuclear weapons? § Americans plan on the Europeans providing the manpower and they would provide the Air Power and WMDs • New Look and NATO o 1955 Germany joins NATO o Japan is in an alliance against the soviet Union o Major industrial countries are all in alliances o Eisenhower was the First commanding general of NATO (Supreme Allied Commander of Europe ) • Nuclear Sharing o Eisenhower opens up Nuclear Sharing Policy (illegal under American Law to share weapons with other countries - Atomic Energy act of 1954) • Set up arrangements with NATO Allies that left the US in legal custody of the warheads, but the European countries bought the launchers etc. and had 'access' to the warheads • The other countries don't like to have to use weapons that are owned by the United States o French start to explore joint production with the Germans (Germans pay and help provide resources, French Build) o At this point the German government (cabinet) has not declared that it wants nuclear weapons. • Perception: o Nuclear energy is good and clean o Thought that Nuclear weapons would be cheaper than a full army Peaceful Coexistence - 1953 -1958 • New Starts, East and West o '53 Stalin dies, and Eisenhower comes in as president (defeating Taft) • US - leads to bipartisan support for containment • Soviet Union = Power Struggle (Khrushchev wins and then tries to liberalize) § Secret speech Feb. 1956 (Disquisition of Stalin's Crimes) § Tries to discredit Stalinism but not Stalinist rule § Blames Stalin for the poor state of Soviet Agriculture and the purges of the Red Army • Effect? Undermines the concept of party rule in E. Europe esp. Poland and Hungary • Gomulka - 1956 Poland picks a new liberal leader § Start to liberalize party rule § Form of cooperation with the catholic church § Limit the reforms to keep the Soviet Union from intervening • Imre Nage - Hungarians pick a new leader in 1956 § Oct. 30 1956 - the Soviets announce that they won't invade, but then 2 days later they reverse this stance § Why? (pressure from other Communist parties…) • Suez crisis comes to a head during this time § The West starts a war in the Middle East o Eisenhower: • Wants to renegotiate how NATO and Foreign economic policy works: Trade not Aid • Limit defense spending • Wants to have a market based economy • Military industrial complex • Limited ideological conflict instead of permanent military actions and stations o In retrospect • Both Khrushchev's program and Eisenhower's programs were impossible § Would lead to rising expectations back home and more national autonomy in Eastern Europe. § American Disengagement in Europe might cause friends in Europe to fall from power § The limited cuts that Eisenhower can put through in US defense spending is hardly enough to get us back to the roaring 20s § Military Keynesianism was a necessary part of the Cold War in the United States • But that said, these new leaderships could have possibly moved towards lessened tensions, and that's what they do. o Within each bloc there are parties that are committed to capitalism or socialism and they have to sell their cold war foreign policy to these committees o In the west they have to pursue these policies so that they can win elections o In the east (S.U., Eastern Europe…) There are different factions with different ideas o Garrison State (term that comes from the 30s) • Regimented country run by the military with strict controls over the economy and freedom of speech. o 30 glorious years (1945 - 1975) • Rapid economic growth • No inflation and low unemployment o There are conflicting impulses • Worried about economic cost of rearmament • Worried about a garrison state • Inspires the first détente • Want to move forward. o Eisenhower comes in in '53 • Rollback (soviets and Eastern Europe) o Hostile Blocs • Ideological and Economic competition o 1954, North Vietnamese forced to accept the partition with Indochina • See the film: Diên Biên Phû o 1955, Austrian state treaty • Only part of Europe that was occupied by 4 powers. o All leads to the first East West Summit in Geneva • Spirit of Geneva o Looked like they could start to negotiate, and neither side had to give up anything significant o Open skies disarmament program knowing that the Soviets would never accept intrusive surveillance o Soviets propose limits on conventional force o This is an example of a superpower twisting one of its could war policies so that another one can be supported o Both sides want to cut spending, both want to pursue their social and political model more vigorously. Wave of decolonization o How will the US and Soviets compete for influence in these territories? • Suez, Hungary and Blocs o Suez • All of the conflicting roles and agendas come together • Pits the US and the Soviets against each other in a struggle for influence in the third world • They negotiate an agreement with the military official • US cancels the loan for the Aswan dam • US veto's Egyptian application for a global loan. • Secret Meeting in France in September of '56 § Israel will attack Egypt • The soviets threaten to use atomic weapons § The Americans did not say that they supported this position. • Agreements: how and who gets more Crisis Years • Suez • Berlin 2 • Berlin