Stereotypes: Evidence For and Control Of
Stereotypes: Evidence For and Control Of Soc 201
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Caine on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 201 at New York University taught by Blaine Robbins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Sociology at New York University.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Stereotypes: Evidence For and Control Of Stereotypes and Behaviors o Black people seem to be disproportionately victimized by accidental police shootings May be because of explicit racism Could be due to implicit stereotyping of black people being more hostile than whites o Correll (2002) Study One Designed a videogame o All participants were white o Flashed pictures of white men and black men Held either a cell phone or a gun All men shown were “subjects” Participant had to choose to shoot or not shoot Results o Significantly faster at making correct decision to shoot when target was armed than making correct decision to not shoot when target was unarmed o People fired at armed target more quickly if he was black o Also quicker at deciding not to shoot an unarmed target if we was white Study Two Replicated first study, but gave participants less time to decide o People correctly shoot armed black men when they should but tend to not shoot armed white men when they should o People correctly don’t shoot unarmed white men when they shouldn’t, but tend to shoot unarmed when they shouldn’t Study Three Replicated first study, but wanted to see if the findings reflected stereotypic associations instead of prejudice (and contact/experience with black people) Results o Biases from first study were greater among those harboring cultural stereotype of blacks-as- aggressive o Biases were smaller amongst those with prior black contact o Greater or lesser prejudice yielded similar biases Study Four Replicated first study, but included both white and black participants Equivalent bias across black and white participants o To summarize Awareness of black cultural stereotypes as “threatening” might help explain police shootings of innocent black people The effects of this cultural stereotype shared among black and white people Extent of contact with stereotyped groups can reduce bias Same results regardless of levels of prejudice Has been replicated on sample of actual police officers Thus, this phenomenon is a general human error, not necessarily an error unique to police o Stereotype Threat When people perform worse on tests because stereotypes about them are activated in their cognitions, which might explain why there is a gap for women on math tests and a gap for blacks on the SAT Hypothesis If women and black people were made aware of stereotype prior to test it would lead to worse performance, but this would not be the case for men, whites, and Asians o Study One Manipulation: activated stereotype People are presented with a test as: Condition One: a working memory capacity test Condition Two: a quantitative memory test that women have performed poorly on in the past The test consisted of memorizing words, doing math problems, and then recalling words Results Females performed worse when stereotype was activated versus when it wasn’t o Study Two Replicated first study, but with white and Latino participants Condition One: participants given a test Condition Two: participants told that the test was a diagnostic of intelligence and would be used to assess “different groups”, then asked participants to report ethnicity Results Latinos scored worse in second condition than in first Latinos reported more anxiety during the test and perceived the test as harder than in the control group o Pager (2002,2006) Sent out identical resumes, changed the race of the applicant Checked for positive response rate (got a call back or offered a job) White- 23% Latino- 19% Black- 13% Also did a study with felons versus non-felons White- 13% Latino- 14% Black- 10% Differences between races with felonies not significant o However, white people that had committed a felony had the same positive response rate as black people that had not committed a felony Sent in confederates (people in on study) to follow up on resumes for jobs Black applicants often told they were “not what they were looking for” or offered lower position jobs White applicants often offered higher position jobs for the exact same resume Later study found that discriminatory employers were more likely to be out of business years later Control Stereotypes o Are we capable of controlling stereotypes or producing nonstereotypic judgements? Easy to tell yourself, “don’t think racist/sexist/discriminatory thoughts” Can actually produce a counterintuitive side effect: thought suppression o When attempts at mental control have the ironic of paradoxical effect of producing an even greater incidence of unwanted thoughts o Also called the “rebound effects” o Wegner (1996) Participants were given sentences to complete “Women who out with a lot of men are…” o Stereotyped answer: sluts o Nonstereotyped answer: popular Manipulation One o Half the participants were given a time limit, the other half could take as much time as needed Manipulation Two o Half the participants told “don’t be sexist” Results o Those that were placed under a time crunch and told not to be sexist gave more sexist responses o Galinksy and Moskowitz (2002) Participants are shown an elderly person and asked to write an essay about them Manipulation 1/3 were control 1/3 told “don’t think ageist thoughts” (stereotype suppressors) 1/3 told to take the perspective of the elderly person (perspective takers) Then all participated in a lexicon test Flashed words and had to determine if they were English or not as fast as possible o Some of the words were stereotypic of elderly people, i.e. forgetful, walker, lonely Results Stereotype suppressors and perspective takers wrote less stereotypical essays than the control group But stereotype suppressors responded faster to stereotypic words to neutral words, and they responded faster than those in control Reaction times for stereotypic words were slower for perspective takers than for suppressors and did not differ reliably from control group o How can we control stereotypes? Minimize threats to self esteem Counter stereotype association training Interpersonal contact o Presently the greater tendency seems to be for people to have stereotypes triggered fairly effortlessly when they encounter members of a stereotyped group Conclusion o Stereotypes yield harmful social consequences if they are premised on false beliefs (which they usually are) o Two best ways to reduce the effects of stereotypes or alter stereotypic beliefs is to increase you contact with members of stereotyped group and take their perspective
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