CH 12 reading guide
CH 12 reading guide HDFS 3040-001
Popular in Human Sexuality Over the Family Life Cycle
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 3040-001 at Auburn University taught by Carol L. Roberson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality Over the Family Life Cycle in HDFS at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
HDFS 3040 CH 12 READING GUIDE Read all of Infant sexuality Childhood sexuality: how do kids learn to express affectionate and sensual feelings? Through activities such as kissing and hugging The responses the child receives can have a strong influence on the manner in which he/she expresses sexuality in later years How can parents convey their acceptance of masturbation as a way of self- exploration; how should parents react to kids masturbating in front of others? What happens if parents tell kids to stop masturbating By not reacting negatively to the genital fondling that is typical of infants and young children; respect privacy In front of others: voice their concerns, taking care to label the choice of location and not the activity as inappropriate Telling them to stop: rare eliminates it; rather they most likely greatly magnify the guilt and anxiety associated with the behavior Childhood sex play When is sex play between kids most likely? What does that sex play tend to look like? Can occur as early as 2 or 3 years but is more likely to take place between the ages of 4 and 7 Activities: from exhibition/inspection of the genitals (often under the guise of playing doctor), to simulating intercourse by rubbing genital regions together What happens in the 5-7 age range? The 8-9 age range? 10-11? 5-7: practice of playing house/mirror predominant heterosexual marriage scripts in our society 8-9: boys and girls begin to play separately, but romantic interest in the other sex may exist at the same time, curiosity about sexual matters remains high, many questions about reproduction and sexuality are asked 10-12: keenly interested in body changes, especially those involving the genitals and secondary sex characteristics, become extremely self-conscious, strongly protest any suggestions of romantic interest in the other sex What is the meaning of sex play with friends of the same sex? It’s common At this age, probably more common than heterosexual encounters because of the separation of sexes Rarely play a determinant role in establishing a homosexual orientation Physical changes of adolescence: When do girls vs boys tend to enter puberty? What factors impact timing? For girls, what are later risks – both physically and socially Girls typically around 10 or 11, boys typically around 12 What are secondary sex characteristics? The physical characteristics other than genital development that indicate sexual maturity, such as body hair, breasts and deepened voice What is the only event of puberty that is clearly different in boys and girls? Growth As soon as a girl starts to show pubertal development, she starts to grow more quickly (begins about 2 years earlier in girls) What is menarche; describe early menstrual cycles and ovulation Menarche: the first menstrual period (usually around age 12 or 13) Can be irregular and can occur without ovulation Some teenage girls experience irregular menstrual cycles for several years before their periods become regular and predictable Methods of birth control based on the menstrual cycle can be particularly unreliable for females in this age group When does the first ejaculate tend to occur; when does the initial appearance of sperm in the ejaculate occur? Ejaculate- typically around age 13 Sperm- typically around age 14 What outcomes are associated with early maturation for boys and girls? Sexual double standard What are the influences of the double standard? Males- focus of sexuality may be sexual conquest Females- learn to appear sexy to attract males but experience ambivalence about overt sexual behavior Masturbation What are the functions during adolescence? Provides an always available outlet for sexual tension, excellent way to learn about one’s body and its sexual potential Noncoital sexual expression What behaviors are included Kissing, touching and manual or oral-genital stimulation th Which noncoital behavior is associated with pvi by 11 grade? Oral sex?? What are the problems with the notion of virginity? Defining virginity as the absence of coitus perpetuates the beliefs that “real sex” equals PVI intercourse and that virginity involves only heterosexual coitus Ongoing sexual relationships What recent changes were noted about the attitudes and behaviors of both sexes? Teenage women seem to be more comfortable with having sex with someone for whom they feel affection rather than believing they must “save themselves” for a love relationship Teenage males are increasingly inclined to have sex within an affectionate or loving relationship rather than engaging in sex with a casual acquaintance of stranger Adolescent sexting – was any conclusion drawn? Incidence of adolescent coitus How has the percentage of high school students engaging in sexual intercourse changed (and how has the sex difference changed?). Strong upward trend from 1950s to 1970s; last two decades it has leveled off and even decreased somewhat Changed more drastically for females than males What has recent research indicated about the experience of first intercourse? Trend toward experiencing first intercourse at an earlier age in both sexes Reasons for engaging in adolescent coitus What reasons were given Accelerated output of sex hormones increases sexual desire and arousability Some are motivated by curiosity ad a sense of readiness to experience intercourse A push toward “adult” behaviors Peer pressure/pressure from dating partners Sense of obligation to a loyal partner Factors that predispose teenagers to early or late onset of coitus What factors predispose teenagers to early onset? Late onset? Early- poverty, family conflict or marital disruption, teens living in a single- parent or reconstituted families, parents’ lack of education, lack of parental supervision, substance abuse, low self-esteem, sense of hopelessness Late- strong religious beliefs, regular religious service attendance, spiritual interconnectedness with friends Homosexuality What are challenges for LGBTQ youth? Bullying, not feeling accepted, fear of rejection, etc. Do most high schools, colleges, and universities have effective programs for antigay harassment/bullying? Why is this an issue? Many colleges and some high schools are now providing a more accepting environment for the establishment of support groups Public school districts across the US are still largely remiss in addressing the needs of these students Probably not for effective programs (didn’t say in the text) The effect of AIDS on teenage sexual behavior When are youth less likely to use condoms? When the girl takes birth control pills Which adolescent females are more likely to engage in unprotected, risky behavior later in adulthood Adolescent pregnancy How has the adolescent pregnancy rate changed? Which youth have highest rates? How does US compare to other developed countries Declined steadily from its peak in 1991 to its lowest level in 2005; increased by 3% from 2005 to 2006 US- highest rate of teen pregnancy Negative consequences of teenage pregnancy Why are pregnant teenagers at high risk for STIs Because of a likely reduction in the use of condoms, which are no longer needed to prevent pregnancy Use of contraceptives Who is least likely to use contraception – especially when they first begin having sexual intercourse? Teenagers, teenage women whose partners are several years older How is the use of condoms changing? What are the factors associated with adolescent use (or not) of birth control Fear of pelvic exam, embarrassment associated with seeking out and/or purchasing contraceptive devices, concerns about confidentiality What are the strategies for reducing teenage pregnancy? American family planning clinic system and school-based health clinics need to be upgraded and expanded to provide free or low-cost contraceptive services to all adolescents who want them The US should follow the lead of several European nations in establishing a compulsory national sex education curriculum that is extended to all grade levels Efforts to educate teenagers to prevent unwanted pregnancies must recognize that males attitudes are important for the practice and effectiveness of birth control Condoms should be made readily available in middle schools and high schools Development and implementation of programs designed to enhance adolescent-parent communication about sex Answering children’s questions about sex. What are the suggestions given? What do you think sex is? What do you know about how babies are made? What are some of the things your friends tell you about sex? How do you feel about the changes in your body? Initiating conversations…. Who tends to tell kids about sex and which kids are they most likely to tell? Mothers What are the principle sources of info for most kids? Friends and sometimes media What is associated with positive parent-adolescent communication about sex? Decreased risk of contracting STIs, more effective and consistent use of birth control, decreased incidence of teenage pregnancies School-based sex-ed What type of sex ed is preferred by most parents? Is it commonly used? Comprehensive sex education to help them avoid STIs and unplanned pregnancies What happened due to the efforts of President Obama and key players in his administration?
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