PBIO3440: Cultivation and Production
PBIO3440: Cultivation and Production PBIO 3440
Popular in Medicinal Herbs Spices and Plants
Popular in Plant Biology
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ariana Borzillo on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PBIO 3440 at University of Georgia taught by Affolter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Medicinal Herbs Spices and Plants in Plant Biology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Horticultural Science and Commercial Production Horticulture o The branch of agriculture that deals with “garden crops” Fruits, nuts, vegetables, ornamental plants (including trees), medicinal plants o When the supply of a medicinal plant, herb, or spice is low enough and the demand is high enough, they can be brought into cultivation Commercial Production Methods Field Cultivation Most economical method When you’re growing plants outside using soil native to the cite where the plants are exposed to the natural climate o Row crops o Climate and soils have to be suited to the crop Preparation of seedbed, planting, weeding and pest control, and harvesting can be highly mechanized o Methodical and o Depends on crop and scale of operations o Certified organic production brings a premium price Absinthe is an alcoholic drink made from anise, fennel, and wormwood which is experiencing a resurgence of production in the united states o Banned in 1912 un US because of supposed hallucinogenic effects Certain products were legalized again in 2007 o strong licorice aroma and taste o contains a compound called thujonethat is toxic in excessive amounts, but you would probably die of alcohol poisoning before you drank enough absinthe to feel the effects o favorite of Picasso and Oscar Wilde rumors link it to Van Gogh’s cutting off his ear Geography and Climate play a role in field production o Certain climates favor the production of certain herbs and spices Jamaica produces allspice, ginger, and turmeric Canada produces mustard, oregano, and parsleyOrganic Certification Organically produced crops can be sold at premium prices o Technique is often appropriate for culinary herbs and medicinal plants o No use of prohibited substances (pesticides and herbicides) on site for at least three years o Soil organics must be maintained or improved o Regular testing of surface and ground water o Maintenance of buffer zones around crops Green House Production environmental conditions can be optimized for plant growth year-round growth useful for herbs that are tender, in great demand, where appearance is a factor good for propagating herbs for wholesale market or as transplants protects plants from elements high maintenance to maintain the environment that you’re trying to create Hydroponic Production producing plants without soil or with sterile substrate o produced in nutrient solution allows precise control over nutrients, eliminates soil borne weeds and diseases, minimizing herbicide and pesticide use require less fertilizer and water than field production extended growing season allows intensive production in a small space Artificial Shade some MAPS cannot tolerate full sun shade cloth and wooden lath allow control over how much light reaches plants exposes plants to ambient temperature and some air flow “shade house” o less expensive than a green house o still protects from perspiratory elements Woodland Culture growing plants under a forest canopy useful for many of our native southeastern plants that grow in the forest understory o ginseng, goldenseal, black cohosh can vary in intensity and expense o can construct structures or can just let seeds fall and hope they grow Benefits of Cultivation instead of Collection supply availability quality control o identification, adulteration, harvest conditions, sanitation genetic manipulation agronomic manipulation post-harvest handling Ways to Improve Medicinal Plants with Agronomic Techniques yield chemistry o fertilizer, water, sun can impact the chemistry appearance ease of harvest pest and disease resistance climatic tolerances o hardiness o drought resistance Production of Mint higher temperature leads to more aromatic plant o steam beneath and around will extract essential oils into a volatile state o after running through a condenser the oils will separate from the water Field Production o Perennial plant Propagated by runners or cuttings Plants last 5-6 years o Needs rich, well-drained soil o Requires full sun and a lot of moisture Production the US is centered in the Midwest (e.g., Indiana) and Northwest (e.g., Washington state) Distilling station o Overwhelming peppermint o Injects steam into a container of herb Essential oils are more than just one compound Goldenseal, Hydrastis Canadensis Buttercup family Herbaceous perennial Native to eastern United States Part used o Rhizome o Roots Medicinal use o Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, astringent, cold and flu Contain berberine Caution o Heart disease o Pregnancy Growing o Easier to grow than ginseng Tolerant of higher light intensity Less subject to pest disease and damage o Does not continually increase inthalue with age Decay begins after the 4 year Best harvest in years 3-4 Site Selection o Need winter cold for root dormancy No further south than northern Georgia o Rich soil with good drainage Avoid bottomlands and clay soils o For forest associates look for mayapple, trillium, blood root, black cohosh Light o 75% shade o can provide with forest cover, lath, or shade cloth Site Preparation o Build raised beds if possible o Add compost or dead leaves for organic matter o pH of about 5.5-6.0 affects growth, root yield, and root alkaloid content can add dolomitic limestone to raise pH o fertilization initial preparation with organic matter or compose a light foliar feeding in the spring with organic fertilizer (fish emulsion or seaweed) is helpful Pest and Disease Control o Slugs are the major pests in the Southeast o Weeds are best controlled by mulch o Disease is best controlled by site selection Ginseng, Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolius ginseng family herbaceous perennials native to east Asia and eastern north America part used o root medicinal use o fatigue, tonic, athletic performance cautions o high blood pressure, heart problems, heart palpitations Guest Lecturer: Latin American Ethnobotany Impact of Latin America on Rest of the World Aztec o Cultivated plants for hundreds of years before Europeans discovered them Ethnobotany botany o Study of plants Ethno o culture how people use plants in their culture subfields ethnobiology o ethnoornithology o ethnoichthyology o ethnozoology o ethnoherpetology o ethnopharmacology o ethnoentomology o ethnomycology o ethnopaleobotany how people use plants prehistorically o ethnobotany UGA Latin American Ethnobotanical Garden plantapalooza Maya Ethnobotany Naturalistic o (visible) reality where treatment is based on clear-cut and apparent symptoms and treated with medicinal plants o Highly sophisticated traditional knowledge based on generations of empirical experimentation Respiratory Dermatological Fevers Rheumatic pains Edemas Breaks Personalistic o (nonvisible) reality where illness requires intervention by healers with supernatural powers o treatment may involve ceremonial healing rituals or special prayers human-given illness evil eye god-given illness deities spirits soul or spirit problems fright soul scared out of body Plant Virtues and Personalities o Dictate what plants can do to relieve conditions o Warm o Cold o Bitter o Caustic o Astringent o Sour o Why are weeds used? Found everywhere Opportunistic Associated with compounds used to keep rodents from eating them Tagetes lucida o Mexican marigold o Tarragon o Native toward southern mexico o Aztec used to flavor chocolate Mexican Marigold / Tarragon Mexican Marigold native to Southern Mexico (Oaxaca) and Guatemala Perennial o compact and mounding plant Very popular medicinal and spice plant in Mexico and Central America Leaves used by Nahuatlto flavor “chocolate” Used by Tzeltal Maya to treat fever, nausea, flu, general gastrointestinal distress Secretions from roots effective in nematode control Anise-scented leaves popular in salsas Prickly Pear Plant used for thousands of years in Mexico and Central America for both food and medicine Extremely drought tolerant cactus species, thornless cultivars available locally Pads cooked, fruits (tuna) consumed raw Mexican traditional medicine used to treat diabetes (normalizes blood sugar), said to lower cholesterol Sap used as binding agent in adobe brick manufacturing during colonial period Mexican Milkweed, Bloodflower native to Central and South America Excellent ethnobotanical story linking plants, insects and culture, also used by Maya to treat skin conditions (rash and lesions) Self seeds Common to Georgia nurseries Lemon Verbena woody, perennial shrub from Argentina, Chile, Uruguay Strong lemon scent (citral) of rough textured leaves Drought tolerant once established Leaves widely used in Latin America as a tea to combat depression, general tonic, indigestion, anti-inflammatory, edible leaves used to flavor salads, ice creams, etc. Propagated by stem cuttings Can be found in local nurseries GA growing season usually too short for flowers Mexican Oregano Mexican Oregano, native to Mexican state of Nuevo Leon found throughout Mexico and US Southwest as ornamental Leaves used in Mexico as oregano-like spice in salsas USDA study confirms high antioxidant activity Exceptionally drought tolerant, woody sub-shrub Plant has flushes of flowers from June until first hard freeze To date, only available mail order Mexican Bush Sage perennial native to Mexico/Central America Mounding habit, many cultivars Late summer/fall flowering in zone 7 Primarily ornamental, some traditional use reported in Mexico as diabetes treatment (specifically treatment for low blood sugar) Attracts butterflies, hummingbirds Propagation best through stem cuttings, division of rooted plants Locally available species Pineapple Sage sage easily found in local nurseries, a perennial, compact sub-shrub Very drought tolerant once established and does not spread Pineapple scented edible leaves and flowers Leaves used medicinally in teas to relieve indigestion and as general tonic Excellent plant choice for butterfly garden Yerba Mate Native to Uraguay, Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil Large evergreen shrub, small tree, drought tolerant when established Leaves used for tea popular among millions of South Americans High caffeine content, plant used as stimulant, antidepressant, highly diuretic Traditional healthful beverage of the Guarani Shrub Verbena Native to Tropical Americas, some 150 species throughout Americas and Africa Exceptionally drought tolerant, fast growing woody perennial Easily acquired at local nurseries Can grow very large with regular irrigation Guaraní of Paraguay and Uruguay make use of plant to reduce fevers, as diuretic, Chiapas Maya to treat stomach conditions,woody stems also used as kindling Exceptionally floriferous plant for butterfly gardens, hummingbirds Propagated by seed or stem cutting Agave Agave spp. Primarily found in arid areas of USA, Mexico, Central and South America Many ethnobotanical uses: sisil (twine), drinks (Pulque, tequila, mescal), edible flowers, flower stalks, sweeteners, sap of various spp. has medicinal uses: laxative, diuretic, reduce swelling, also used for live fencing, ornamental Root Beer Plant A spreading perennial plant that grows and ranges from México to Colombia Fragrant anise/clove-scented leaves high in safrole, used in México to wrap tamales, fish, etc and flavor Mole verde in Oaxaca. Also used in central Mexico added to chocolate drinks and in SE Mexico to make liquor called Verdín Called “sacred leaf”in México because plant is said to have been used to hang infant Jesus’diapers to dry Close relative to Piper methysticum and Piper nigrum Cultivation T echniques Genetic Modification Basil Research Program Trying to develop improved cultivars of basil Increase essential oil content Increase content of cinnamon-scented oil o Interest to the perfume industry o Methyl chavicol o Methyl cinnamate Sweet Basil o Mint family o Annual herb o Cultivated for 3,000 years o Native to tropical regions through Africa, Middle East, India, and Indonesia o Part used Leaf o Purposes Culinary herb Used in traditional medicine as a tonic Carminative Diuretic Anthelmintic Mild depression o Essential oil composition of basil species is extremely variable Makes them good candidates for development and selection of new chemotypes Chemotypes chemical varieties of a plant Common essential oils Linolool Methyl chavicol Eugenol researchers obtained seeds of 87 Ocimum accessions from the USDA Plant Introduction Station o accession documented element in a collection o USDA Plant Station Collect plants and seeds from all over the world Accessions were all field-grown in a trial garden (“common garden”) o About 50 accessions germinated o Development of the new basil cultivars involved three steps Evaluation Initial screening See what’s growing well Noting physical characteristics (organaleptically) o Smell o color Selection More intensive evaluation Select plants that have physical/chemical characteristics wanted Analyzing leaves to determine what the composition is Breeding Continued evaluation Combining the desired plants to see if a new plant can be made from the selected plants Peppermint Study Can we grow more peppermint on the coastal plain Looked at 8 cultivars of mints Used 4 different fertilizer treatments o None o Mushrooms o Peat moss o Mushroom + peat moss 3 cultivars consistently produced higher biomass yield mushroom compost increased biomass yield most effectively