ARH Portraiture ARH 316B
Popular in Survey of Eighteenth-Century Art and Culture
Popular in Art History
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Dengler on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 316B at University of Arizona taught by Professor Plax in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Survey of Eighteenth-Century Art and Culture in Art History at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
October 4, 2016 Week 7 Portraiture - Portraiture was the most common genre of painting o EVERY painter did portraiture o How many artists made their money because of the huge demand - Industry arose around portraiture (entire network) o Engravings and prints would be made of famous people for other people to buy - Portraits served to let people know who you are o Conventions that portrayed status – a pattern/a way of depicting something used over and over (mean something) Ex. Drapery means that someone is important (“The Cloth of Honor”) - Portraiture was a social occasion o Portraitists had to have their own studio o Socially skilled portraitist could climb up the social ladder Portrait categories - The Noble Portrait th o Developed by Anthony Van Dyck 17 century Established a lot of the conventions Background Lived in Flanders, but worked all over Europe Elena Grimaldi, 1623 Charles I Dismounted, 1635 James Stuart, Duke of Richmond, 1633 o Conventions 1) A Noble Pose and Bearing Regal Pose - Turned facing the viewer, knee bent, arm on hip We are slightly beneath them looking up at them (they are elevated in status, quite literally) 2) Elongating the figure 3) Emphasizes aristocratic style over conveying ideas about their personality or character No psychological probe of the sitter 4) Uses accessories that convey the idea of aristocratic status Charles I Dismounted o Trees of canopy over the king o Goes back to relics in religious paintings o Conveys the idea of royalty and nobility because he is hunting Hunting was a noble and royal privilege o Wearing a sword Only pedigree nobility had the right to carry a sword Elena Grimaldi o Sheltered by the umbrella o Links her to the idea of being a relic, needing to be sheltered o Columns that show she is in a Palatial setting James Stuart, Duke of Richmond o Drapery in background o A dog of good breeding/a dog of “race” Alludes to the idea of hunting 5) Costume/Dress All 3 above examples are in 17 century costume/dress, but all in different styles Elena Grimaldi o She was Italian and they were much more conservative o Wearing a millstone rough Prohibited your head from having free movement and kept you from standing up straight Very labor-intensive piece of costume Charles I Dismounted o Wearing a hunting houtfit o Worn with very self-conscious casualness o There was a style in his court to wear very contrived casual clothes o Calculated nonchalance James Stuart, Duke of Richmond o Wearing insignias of membership in honorary noble orders o Peter Lely Takes over the noble portrait tradition after Van Dyck dies Two Lake Sisters, 1660 In a garden setting – suggests private property Red drapery in the background, even though it isn’t logical Feigned casualness of dress off the shoulders o Godfrey Kneller Takes over the noble portrait tradition after Lely dies Considered not as talented Countess of Dorchester, 1705 Portrait Formats - Full Length o Cost a lot more - Half Length Image - Three-Quarters Length - Bust Length - Family Portraits/Group Portraits o Thomas Gainsborough, The Gravenor Family Family portrait Out in their property Field of wheat on the right They are clearly not harvesting wheat, but putting them next to the abundant field of wheat, it shows that they have cared over the land and made it prosperous o The artist Gainsborough’s Daughters chasing a butterfly Not highly finished/detailed in the background This kind of portrait is a private kind of portrait Would have been displayed in rooms where the immediate family met Consideration: where will the portrait be displayed? o Conversation Piece: Category of British portraiture that was very popular and that showed a family group engaged in some sort of activity, sometimes seemingly engaged in conversations Often about private property Arthur Devis, a Family Group Figures are often a little smaller and slight/skinny Hogarth, The Graham Children Cloth of honor in the background Clock with father time in left background Things in the paintings convey information Built in theme: the idea of a childhood innocence and a loss of that innocence as one grows up o Cherries are a symbol of virginity (woman dangling it in front of baby) o Cat and bird – the idea of predators o Time flies (father time on the clock) Thomas Gainsborough, Mr & Mrs. Andrews, 1748 Out in wheat field Good tenders of the land Responsible members of nobility They aren’t working in the fields, they are surveying the field Mr. Andrews has been hunting o Has a gun and a dog o Feigned casualness George Stubbs, John and Sophia Musters Riding in Front of Colwick Hall, 1777 Symbols of status o Hunting o Their Palladian house in background o Extremely well bred horses o Well bred hunting dog William Hogarth, the Fontaine Family, 1730 Visual puns (Hogarth was witty) o Painting with an image of a fountain (visual pun of the Fontaine family) Painting is the product of culture, not from nature (associated with men) o Fruit on the table with the women Women were associated with nature o Men are looking at and discussing painting o Cloth of honor has fallen down and man is holding on to it o Pug in foreground – one of Hogarth’s personal symbols William Hogarth, Hogarth’s Servants, 1757 - French Portraits o All portraits are constructions that create a certain identity The subject gets to decide how they want to be o Hyacinthe Rigaud, Louis XV, Coronation Portrait, 1743 Coronation portrait Full length of the king wearing his coronation clothes The king never wears the crown o Has to do with the idea that he doesn’t really need the crown. He is so filled with his own authority that the crown is nearly a symbolic accessory Copied by a team of other artists, and they were sent as diplomatic gifts to other monarchs in Europe Displayed at the annual salon of the academy o Placed up on a little podium and a canopy projected over it (as if it was the king on his symbolic throne) A lot of drapery in the background Architecture in background indicates palatial setting Crown and sceptor o Francois Boucher, Mme de Pompadour, 1756 Educated, sophisticated woman Beautiful and accomplished - The Hunting Portrait o Jean-Marc Nattier, Alexandre Borisovitch Kourokine in Hunt Costume, 1728 Well bred hunting dogs were a sign of status Has a sword Dead bird in corner He probably wouldn’t have worn that costume to hunt Red sash and brooch are insignia of one of the honorary noble orders The gun We can see the bit of metal on the stock Showing off that it was made by the most famous gun maker in the area Pose Uncomfortable with legs splayed - The Grand Tour Portrait o Costumes can be quite fanciful o Landscape that shows they are on the grand tour o Pompeo Batoni, William Gordon, 1766 Displaying his family colors because he is not in Scotland where it is illegal to wear those clothes - The Disguised Portrait o Playful and fun o The figures are always right up at the foreground Block off any real background o Okay to show a little skin o J. –M. Nattier The king of disguised portraits Mostly portraits of women where the figure is disguised as a goddess of some sort Not interested in personality or character Very flattering portraits Women loved them Loves including drapery that moves horizontally in front of picture plane Mme de Pompadour as Diana, 1746 Diana was the goddess of the hunt Has a bow and arrow The Princess of Cande as Diana, 1756 Leopard fur wrap Holding bow and arrow Mlle Henriette as Flora, 1742 One of daughters of Louis Horizontal drapery Duchess of Chaulnes as Hebe, 1744 Hebe was the serving maid of the gods and goddesses o Typically represented holding a pitcher Bird of prey and lightning is a symbol of Jupiter Not usually taken seriously, and were more fun Mlle de Clermont as a Sultan’s Wife, 1733 o She was a member of the court from a very important noble family o She was the ideal courtier (behaved well, always appropriate, perfect conversation, a good girl) o She commissioned this portrait and had some fun creating a contrast between who she was and who is shown o Not what she is, but she can pretend Legs crossed and shown Harem The Duke of Chaulnes as Hercules, 1746 - Portraits that reveal and focus on Character o Maurice Quentin de La Tour Specialized in this kind of portrait Very ambitious artist who didn’t necessarily work for nobility He worked mostly for members of the “intelligencia” – people who were associated with Enlightenment philosophy, wealthy manufactures, wealthy people who worked in finance o Differences from other categories of portrait Looking at the viewer Focus is on the face Not a lot of stuff Amusing objects Drapery Symbols to convey status o Self Portrait, 1751 Wanted the viewer to see him as supremely confident Associated himself with nobility He has given himself a sort of intelligent look Hasn’t idealized himself Medium = pastel Until 18 century, pastels weren’t used as a legitimate medium A number of artists, including de la Tour transformed the medium into one for finished paintings Do interesting things with color and texture Very precarious and sun sensitive Done on paper Paper making process for pastels was a whole new industry o Madame de la Grimod de la Reynie, 1751 More realistic Not idealized Not one of the Nattier porcelain dolls She has a double chin Holding a fan and handbag and wearing a fashionable dress No background to fill in a story, we are just focusing on her Medium = pastel England - Britain excelled in portraiture o They usually imported other kinds of paintings from elsewhere - Two different artists with two very different approaches (working later in the century) o Sir Joshua Reynolds Founder of the British academy Liked history painting, but there was no demand for it Combined history paintings with portraiture o Referenced past works of art to convey a message Established Grand Manner paintings Quotations from past art Elevated in its intention Sarah Siddons as a Tragic Muse, 1784 Famous actress Shown in her professional role as an actress Two figures behind her Reference to past works of art o Throne and pose are the same from Prophet Isaiah from Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel Ceiling o Uses Le Brun’s Heads of Expression A manual done for “Expression of the Passions [Emotions]” Book for artists to explain how to portray a person displaying a certain emotion Descriptions and illustrations Handbook for how to draw emotions Self Portrait in Oxford Academic Garb, 1775 How he wants to be perceived – an intellectual o Wearing Oxford Academic Garb He was very proud of his degree Painting recalls a self portrait that Rembrandt did with same pose and kind of hat o Wants to align himself with great past artists Conveys character o He hung out with educated men o Familiar with big painters in England o More serious o Academician: Made the Grand Tour and studied the art of Italy, Holland, France, Classical Antiquity and incorporated this visual vocabulary into paintings Commodore Keppel, 1752 Based off of the famous Apollo Belvedere, known to be the most beautiful statue o Pose is mirror image of him o People would have recognized it They would have felt smart recognizing it Tells us a story o Commodore was in a shipwreck and is shown on a rocky shore with a bit of a shipwreck and stormy skies, indicating that he is a survivor Costume o British Military Garb had a lot of buttons and trim and insignia that indicated rank The Montgomery Sisters Adorning a Term of Hymen, 1774 History painting + portraiture Conversation piece Three daughters shown as three figures that are adorning the statue of Hymen with roses Hymen is associated with marriage Statue of Hymen o Top is like a human body, then the lower part is just a stand Format for statue is referred to as a Term Statue type developed in ancient Rome and placed in gardens as a boundary marker (reference to goddess Terminis) Three figures o The one in white, closest to statue, was married (under the spell of Hymen) o Girl in middle was engaged o Girl on left was available Progression to show marriage Drapery in background in the garden Garrick between Comedy and Tragedy, 1762 Marries history paintings and portraiture o Would have conjured up Choice of Hercules, 1600 Hercules choosing between virtue and vice o An intelligent play off of the history painting Between personification of tragedy and comedy o Thomas Gainsborough Sarah Siddons, 1785 Does Sarah the actress in a very different way from Reynolds o Nothing that tells us that she is an actress, just a fine lady o Red cloth in the background o In beautiful blue dress, with a nice hat and muffs o Giving a sidelong glance Sarah had a very prominent nose o Composition is based on the shape of her nose o A repetition of noses o Gainsborough is more interested in formal aspects Known for not paying as much attention to character or personality, but interested in portraiture as a formal exercise o Interested in the aesthetic aspect of portraiture and how to make a composition Self Portrait, 1754 Plainly dressed o Not wearing a costume that tells you who he is Pose o Hand under jacket – conventional pose Conveys character o Liked to hang out with poets and musicians Not an Academician
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