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by: Alice Cui

NAS_Note.pdf Native American Studies 20A

Alice Cui

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Native American Studies Note from instruction beginning to first mid-term.
Intro to Native American Studies
Dr. Pearson
Class Notes
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This 40 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alice Cui on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Native American Studies 20A at University of California Berkeley taught by Dr. Pearson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to Native American Studies in Native American Studies at University of California Berkeley.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
Friday, August 26, 2016 8.29 - 1492 Columbus “New World” & Old World - 4 times travel - Indians were healthy compared to Europeans - Indians women were sexually free - Battle of little bighorn 1 Monday, August 29, 2016 8.29 European Colonization - Spain, France, England, Portugal, Sweden, Dutch - European technology - Crusade (1095-1291): England, Spain, France—>spread Christianity(not succeed) - 1978 American Indian Religious Freedom Act - 100-year war England vs. France—> fight for land - Black death(plague), small pox - On continent: 1. English: resources, land, religion freedom pilgrim: May Flower, Catholic Church corrupted, religion war; boats, timbers 2. Spanish: religion, gold 3. French: fur trade, marriage 4. Russian: fur trade 5. Dutch: ship, merchant shipping, navy - viral diseases from Europe - Age of Discovery: Technology, shipping : boats as transportation - not enslave American Indians, cuz they could run back to home 2 Wednesday, August 31, 2016 8.31 - Europeans brought civilization to American Indians - American Indians not industrialization - Colonial Law: Spanish not enslave but labor - Colonists gathered gold, silver…, Catholic Church gathered soul - Dutch: shipment network, married women - England: world power, navy—>travel around world—>world domination - French: fur, manufacture luxury, control fur trade; married native women; resources back: power, money, wealth - No Neocolonism, colonism never ends - Russian: fur, luxury goods - 1852 California: American Indians servant legal not slave - sent American Indians to DC - Treaty, new laws: include native people - 1849 California Gold Rush 3 Friday, September 2, 2016 9.2 - Colonialism Definition: the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers and exploring it economically. - Conquest: subjugation and assumption of control of a place or people by use of military force. - Contact: state or condition of physical touching; a meeting, communication, relationship with someone - Encounter: unexpectedly experience or be faced with chance meeting; an unexpected or casual meeting with someone/something - Just War: not justify killing - Requiremento: assert Spanish domination over the Americas - International Law: basis of nations, Spain, France, England, Catholic Church— >protect land, labor - Treaty between countries(nation to nation): USA—treaty—Indians, USA regarded American Indians as foreign nation - Nation to nation agreement - Treaty(fact)=Institution law - Congress&Congress passed the treaty - Senate proposed facts—>vote—>pass, president sign - 1872 House Representative (money) not included in treaty—>stopped treaty - Federal agreement not law - 1785 treaty making, 1872 stop - 1924 The Indian Citizenship Act granted full U.S. citizenship to America's indigenous peoples - federal recognition: tribe included - Civil War 1861-1865—>late payment 4 Friday, September 2, 2016 - Reservation land - manifest destiny: its settlers were destined to expand across North America - treaty era - new deal 5 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 9.7 - policy overlapped - 1872 treaty ended up - Lincoln died, end of civil war, DC corrupted - no fair deal for American Indian - Money supposed to pay American Indians X (federal) - by the end of civil war, biggest technological advance everywhere (steel, pot, gun, cloth…) - transportation increases & western removal population increases - civil war was over, many African American became homeless - 1830 Indian Removal Act, new frontier: Great Lake, to the west of Mississippi river(1832) remove all of the Indians out of the south and east to the west new frontier - 1828 gold first discovered in Georgia - GA passed law: Cherokee couldn’t own the gold didn’t like federal treaty and federal take in charge of relationship with Indians —>took over and controlled over - Cherokee GO no power to resist - 150 thousands were removed out by federal and army - 27 tribes, 25 different Cherokee removal - 15 years, 1850 removal done - 1852 move Indians out of CA, didn’t come true - 1860 homeless Indians - 1849 CA gold rush 6 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 - 1865 by the end of civil war, half of a million African American became homeless - union army, no new war, raise large army, went south to do reconstruction, west to fight Indians - 1869 Peace policy President Grant - Quikrs: protect Indians right - Sherman&Sheridan: powerful after civil war, didn’t win election Indian problems: exterminate, on reservations, kill babies - Reservation: reserved place and property - on reservation, assimilate—>white, schools/Christianity/English instead of native languages - 1877 Indian War violent, fight back=kill - federal government army divided Indians into Christians and non-Christians - 1880 buffalo gone, destroyed, kill buffalo=kill Indians - life change: food, farm, tools - freedom restricted, tired; closer, more contact - passport: a piece of paper - left reservation=left benefit - federal government: if you have a problem and don’t do what we want—> cut off your food - On the reservation: new treaty—newspaper—what property is now open to public not stop settler to new property military, Indians didn’t have laws and justice settlers came and took everything and made changes federal law horses taken away from tribes, kill all good horses - 1885 20 thousands children registered to school every year parents didn’t have right to keep them out 7 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 federal school: english, history good little citizen—white children - 1880s reservation gone, American Indians control property - 1887 New Era Dawes Allotment Act Congress: new law established, reservation broke up; make Indians self-supporting people by doing that they must become private property owners - behind Allotment Act is accommodation - reservations were owned in trust by every member of that tribe - not sell, not buy, live, not title, no property tax, no individual property by whole tribe, no school tax, no own independently - private property ownership was foreign to Indians - no more treaty, one-time payment - Indians got a piece of property and became citizens as property holder, live on own property - not tax free, pay tax, no longer reservation, law applied, part of state, no reserved place, regulate tax, states around reservation love - 1934 Allotment ended - not pay tax—>losing property - 1906 Oil Oklahoma, private property lost, no where to go and no reservation to go - 1932 Roosevelt New Social Welfare, Allotment Act failed - 1934 American Indian Reorganization Act - World War 2 money went to Europe, Indians signed up to fight, no money for social welfare - 1945 Roosevelt died, global mess, back to home and started education and colleges - 1953 Termination & Relocation - Termination: no more reservations no help with their business 8 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 no relationship between federal and Indians one payment done no more treaty - Relocation: sign up, send you to a large city of your choice job, apartment, training(not trust) problem: not educated, entry-level jobs already occupied by migrants
 9 Friday, September 9, 2016 9.9 - the New World didn’t start at the same time for everyone on continent - not same time not same place not same colonization - 1492 diseases from Europe, millions of people died - 1740 small pox, diseases traveled, no treatment, no prevention - diseases through population over years: get immunity - 97% death rate for infectious small pox, 3% survival - no clue for contagious disease - if survived through diseases, permanent immunity - never occur among Indians before - 90 diseases swept out - not same time, different diseases - 1740 Cherokee got smallpox - 1979 eradicated small pox by worldwide vaccination, but no treatment/prevention existed in 1492 - 1740 Sioux, huge diseases - 19th century, Spanish missions brought diseases to native Americans in CA - 1797 Edward Jenner cowpox vaccine - huge populations skip mission and ran back to home community with infectious disease and everybody was sick - diseases were brought to new colonial frontier - Indians never had diseases - plants, trees as drugs; eat more food to treat diseases - Syphilis, curable to some point, new antibody, take accommodation, can be stopped but can’t recover body damage, eat bones; mercury for curing syphilis - huge change on demographic: people died 10 Friday, September 9, 2016 - In 400 years colonization, only one reference for on purpose bringing diseases: one group of British gave small pox to Indians by giving them the blanket with smallpox— >not sure whether true or not - 1837 35000 people died within 8 weeks - 1960s, 70s, 80s, good researches, 50% killed by diseases - traders: exchange European technologies with Indian products, brought natives into developing markets - colonists: make money - indians: have huge trade network, trade all over the continent - feather, religious importance goods - corn from Mexico, basis of sedentary tribes, brought by trading network - migration pattern: all over the place - Credit Economy-Dependency - what Indians wanted to buy and sell<—European trade - guns for hunting and protection as new technology - alcohol, coco - cheapest for most money - creating dependency, trader-monopoly - fur trade: winter for fur - women processed fur, men hunted for substance(food, cloth) - men killed animals, women processed a large amount(kitchen, clothes) - new trading economy, money for fur increased - huge deficit - trading post: trader set prices and put price high, Indians couldn’t spend the money they earned - food and fur trading is one-on-one 11 Friday, September 9, 2016 - no beaver in winter - first year bad, second year worst, third year people started to be hungry - then traders go - 150 years, environment ruined, trade moved across, animals died and extinct - As animals died out, trades died out. - When trading economy was good, European traders fought over and wanted to trade - Federal constitution—>licensed trader right to control trades with Indians right to make treaty with Indians 12 Monday, September 12, 2016 9.12 - How American Indians accommodate? How they lived with the new life? - 2000 different culture in North America, diversity - incoming trade, settlers moved in - pioneers were always brave to fight Indians toward west - American Indians had no where to go, so they adjusted and learned how to live on the land - settlers wanted land - In CA, Spanish mission took off American Indians who lived on the land, brought in slaves and cattle(eat wild grass that American Indian lived on) - farm in south: plantation economy - Americans didn’t have plantation agriculture, some had agriculture corn which was reliable source for food. - mono-crop economy - new plantation economy needed land - settlers: tame wildness, tame new frontier, savage - in the colony, settlers farm, agriculture—>they didn’t want violence, cuz it would destroy everything - perfect world: no American Indian slavery - different slavery from African slavery - fur, slavery trade - plantation economy required labor, force labor and slavery - tribes: capture own slaves sell to new economy, black slaves - bridges: pay money for going and coming, built at shallowest, narrowest, follow Indian trials - buildings: wooden buildings, restrict movement, couldn’t go and do hunting - buildings were near water, cattle were near water (eat a lot of grass, pollute water) 13 Monday, September 12, 2016 - settlers’ animals vs. Indians’ animals - settlers’ animals took resources that Indians’ animals relied on - fence: settlers fenced out Indians, restrict movement - find a new way, but someone is already there - resources overuse in South - roads: access, traffic increases, some follow Indian trials; more people, more supplies, more everything divide properties, markers, increase communication - American Indians were locked out of anything, had no title of property - settlers got a paper(bought through treaty) and let American Indians move, no where to go - American Indians had no crop agriculture - settlers used the ground for corps, and protected them with fence and sign - if Indians near garden, died, steal - take wild food—>domestic food - plantation economy in South was profitable, huge amount of lands - improvements: better roads to carry more, plantation economy—global market - bottom of new letter, excluded from education, change to new economy, stay within and learn to accommodate - poverty across USA - stable simultaneously - whole new legal system: no place in, no testify in court, no own property, no citizenship - slave population control - 1925 vote, 1960s all Indians vote - law order, not part, not protect, control - American Indians own law order, customs, ideas (banish—>death, rarely) 14 Monday, September 12, 2016 - always own ideas of social control - new law order not included - matter of social, physical, mental control - religion conquest, Christianity, “Christian nation” - savage—>civilized person, tool of control - method of assimilation, building new community - American Indians: own religions: hundred’s of; own spiritual belief, a lot of religion traditions - 2000 cultures 15 Wednesday, September 14, 2016 9.14 - Europeans try to define Indians - Pocahontas-“feminism”, mother earth, feel-good movie - Pocahontas died in England 20-21 years old, met John Rolfe at 10 no own defense, interfere her own people, gave up her life to save white guy from her own people stereotypical idea: “women” represent - images for Indians, form visual images—>Indian women looks like talk to trees, wild animals as pet - being people with color interior with white (non-sense) - Europeans judge against themselves - believe: anything has spirit/life, interspecies communication - not get a real picture for a woman - political connection: intermarriage - wild creature: spirit, communicate with nature - female stereotype—>damaging, struggle to define themselves, gave their life to save white men - Pocahontas: one of few has positive representation of American Indian female - American Indian female: incredible strong, powerful+prefer to work like to work hard, proud - European stereotype Indian men: strong, on horse - opposite side, love children - men in all shapes, forms; fisher, hunter, protecter - women(backbone): harvest plants, process food, raise children, build house - men: ceremony duties - women: gave birth, natural power 16 Wednesday, September 14, 2016 - men: seek to power, need more spiritual help, pray for power - women&men:healer - In tribes, sex need each other, men and women together unit to survive - gender identity didn’t match too much - Navajo, need each other - size and shape, not importance part - goal: have children, process food..more could do - recognize: no religion, no spiritual people - couldn’t recognize/identify manufacture stories - Christian change and climate religion (not recognize) - 1978 American Indian Religious Freedom Act - 1781 guarantee freedom of while people religion - practice Indian religion—>jail - view native americans as others, redefine by own definition - 1925 own property - others define who you are, define native americans, gender, stereotype: not have society, religion, culture, family - we need to think beyond stereotypes 17 Friday, September 16, 2016 9.16 - white man overlook Indian multiple culture diversity - 2000 languages in North America along incredible diversity - plural diverse - Spanish set tone: printing press, writing - oversimplify: disregard - 12 languages exist—>speak conversationally - 105 CA spoken languages - overlook in own image - belief, religion dimension - simplify everything—>no social customs - no languages near European languages - European socially/technologically advanced, nobody tried to find who they are - misnomer: Spanish-Los Indios, French-Los Indians, English-Indians, cannibals - Europeans didn’t understand the multiple culture, so they said there was no culture - they didn’t learn to find but fill the blank themselves - “150 years old” life span, healthy old people, not in Europe - native people didn’t keep track of age(duration of time), not have printing press(pic, word) - Christianity=Civilization - colonists brought Christianity to native americans(not civilized) - 1819 Indian Civilization Act, Christians - “Civilization” program, natives had no laws, no guidelines, no court - not recognized governing structure<—Europeans no laws - Indian groups: laws and regulation, every group has own laws and regulation- >membership 18 Friday, September 16, 2016 - no literacy(not mean stupid), no letter(not read/write), no written language - incredibly complex oral history was history, remember everything - stories died away<—many people died/were forced to speak English - Indians couldn’t read treaties; files, notes needed interpreter to translate Indian Agreement - 1830s written language in Cherokees, several tribes were helped establish - no government, no governing structure Europeans recognized - customs, faith->group religion - America wanted Indians to have government government to government relationship, treaty people recognized concentral decision making majority rule new government: force treaty - no clothing, not dress properly, hot - no arts: Renaissance in Europe, different ways to express, decorate, music - no trade: across continent, trade network - CA diverse Indian population after removal - food, clothing, fur, religion items - agriculture not in Europe, soil destroyed by overuse for natives, some did, some didn’t - Cherokee women farmer, corn(rely on rain) - fire agriculture, buffalo 19 Monday, September 19, 2016 9.19 - no marriage custom (compare with Europeans, they didn't see what they expected) “New World” different types of martial relationships from European married one woman=younger sisters practical reasons, responsible for families, men as protector Cherokee style divorce, female determine who became Cherokee - marital relationships reflect federal law - different marital relationships - no morals: Europeans: moral themselves, civilized, Christian women sexually free different moral code in different groups Europeans judged based on their own supposed code - no religion not see recognized religion practices church: soul—>Christianity no major religion like in Europe own ideas—>what’s beyond surface “religion” “philosophy” spiritual help, praying European not write anything they saw but something they saw - 1883 American Indian religion banned - 1978 Free Religion Act - human sacrifice—>seeking better world/spiritual help - fasten subjugate yourslef - late 19-early 20 the century 20 Monday, September 19, 2016 - 1970s-1980s Renaissance for Indian religion practices, but many were gone, not complete Renaissance - 1550 Spain, Valladolid killing people, have no right to kill others Catholic church: debate [Valladolid debate] Los Indios Sepulveda: humans vs not humans(no soul) reach no conclusion Requerimento: when you meet a group native americans, you must ask them and give them the opportunities to accept Jesus Christ. If they do, you can’t make war on them. International law: to avoid unnecessary war, just war Latin/Spanish not spoken in New World - a path to become civilized, 3 stages of society 1. savage state no homes/marriages/farms/ties live by hunt, eat from wild no social graces 2. barbarian domesticate animals, live in one place most of the time farm a little bit, sedentary 3. citizen (truly civilized) live in a society with law top of evolutionary letter naturally born - not generalize American Indian, identify particular tribes - societies/cultures - CA 105 tribal names, 6 major language families 21 Monday, September 19, 2016 - recognize different between tribes - resources indicate lifestyles - plant fibers: housing, clothing - dogs - Chippewa, call themselves Anishinaabe French: Ojibwe, British: Chippewa, American: treaties with Chippewa - Sioux, Nadouessioux - keeping names is difficult, accounts for differences - Cherokee: Oklahoma, Georgia(1828 Gold Rush) CA Gold Rush 1849 Depression 1920s Dustbowl (drought, dug up the land) - tribes on removal - five (civilized) tribes: Cherokee/Chickasaw/Choctaw/Creek/Seminole came from south - Bay Area: struggle with federal recognition - European mention differences based on white standards (DO NOT DO)(NOT COMPARE) - Hopi: poverty level =/ poor - federal schools 1890, main goal: desocialize/detribalize, Christian/white work habits, destroy local languages - evaluate individually, think beyond past problems, stereotypes, movies - welcome diversity 22 Wednesday, September 21, 2016 9.21 - maps - how many native people there were? - cultural zone map - Q: what impresses you? - each cultural zone is occupied by groups of people - a lot of native people, no unoccupied land - 1880s 250 thousands - 1980s 120 millions people in North America - literally, people everywhere - “New England”—> want to establish a new England - new national culture moved to another place - green: catawba - similiar color—>similiar culture structure - share intelligent languages but not particular the same languages: Navajo and Apache(Indeh)—>Athabaskan speakers, develop their own languages Cherokee(south) and Iroquois(north)—>linguistically related - no unoccupied land - a lot of people, individual customs/societies, share language family/origin story - US Exploration before 1675 push in land 23 Wednesday, September 21, 2016 Catawbas: accommodation not experience colonization at same time 1776 Revolution all map changed 13 colonies—>13 states, huge changes - 1689-1783 colonial map Appalachian Mountain British and American Indian—> agreement never cross mountain to go west, leave us alone forever - States new nation: not include American Indian include some by treaty, like outsiders Constitution: not over Indians mention Indians in two places: 1. federal government kept the right to make treaties 2. federal government kept the right to control trades - Go west, follow buffalo trials (Indian trials) - 1775 Colonial Map - pink: British territory - orange: foreign area - Q: did American Indians fight on both sides of the War in American Revolution? - A: yes, every war armed soldiers, both sides, Huron—>British - 1600 dense tribes, heavily populated state - every change Europeans brought affect American Indians - cultural area 24 Wednesday, September 21, 2016 - contact—different time in different place - North America - environment—> building, hunting, fishing - no unoccupied area - resources - salmons, ceremony: keep salmons back, fresh water—migrate—salt water then come back - share salmon’s stories, ceremonies… - thanks the first fish come back - not kill all - yellow: buffalo country - Great Lakes: water, lifestyles: fresh water fish, main form of transportation: canoe - Northern CA: red wood canoe, house - Southeast: rich soil, Cherokee female farm, build dam, trap farm - main language families - blue: Iroquois - complexity of languages: speak—keep languages alive, children spoken - old common custom not related to European languages - no pronounce: one version by women, one version by men - yellow: Athabaskan North CA - Navajo and Apache move - very complex - travel back and forth 25 Friday, September 23, 2016 9.23 CA: zone of contact - indigenous communities, languages - 1780 mission came in - separate cultures, societies, languages, customs, ideas… - populated, dense - resources and climates determined life styles - multilingual - salmon cultures - 2002 shallow water Klamath River Fish Kill, extinct - 1849 Gold Rush tragedy for Native Americans - kill Native Americans(55000) for 5 dollars - survival: difficult - colonial power: Spain, Mexico, USA, Russia - natives moved in for thousands of years - language relatives - moving pattern - Georgia, Texas, CA - missions: diseases - CA mission(1769-1823): Spanish mission by coast, military force->Christian mission ships with army, supplies, food more troops—>more land and control fight, not preach - accessibility, transportation: ships 26 Friday, September 23, 2016 - diverses climates—>lifestyles to accommodate climates, mobile - farm, control grass, burn off—>control environment - deers(browsers)—>food - lively topography, earthquakes, stories - people, megafauna, megaflora - central valley drain - totally occupied - reservations: not that much people - languages eradicated - school for Indian children - ceremony practices: spiritual - salmon ceremony: thanks for coming back different tribes among river watch salmon: first-fish ceremony: capture, honor after that, fishing, fair share of fish, not fish all out - Q: 2nd salmon river? A: Sacramento river - fish run ruined - dogs related European, pets in Bay Area—> resources enough, leisure time - spiritual, ceremonial traditions - housing: red wood - starvation - 95000 in Bay Area<—-Removal Act 27 Monday, September 26, 2016 9.26 mission system - Spanish and French missions - Spanish: 1769 in upper CA (first) 2/3 died 1591-1638 epidemic diseases Northwest New World CA dense population - Spanish Conquest land basis for all problems Baja subjugate native americans 67% lost epidemic year smallpox 97%killed infectious people immunity forever fort, forced labor, crowded, unpaid, out of land diet poor, infectious diseases Los Indios, labor won nothing - Alta CA - epidemic diseases - not clean - not common diseases - deficiency - syphilis(brought by priests and soldiers, not cure but stop) 28 Monday, September 26, 2016 - measles - small pox - 95% decline in one generation - pull people in the mission - run back home brought diseases back - 1849 murdered 55000 in Gold Rush - Christianity: leading cause for civilization - mission Santa Barbara - revolt, uprising—> not stop entire system - after revolution, Spanish came back more harsh in 12 years, 10 times force - rebellion: kill priests and all Spanish - 1692 violence stronger - unknown epidemics - lose babies—>can’t keep population stable - 1542 first contact - 1782 mission - 1806 new mission - 1821 Mexico independent, leave mission system - 1844 small pox epidemic - death rate fluctuate - living condition terrible: starving people (San Diego) - 1810 trade in increased, more trades - outside contact increased, more diseases - decreasing birth rate, population crushing, hard on women - younger man better chance to survive, stronger population 29 Monday, September 26, 2016 - Arizona: 1773-1885 93% died before age of 10, 94% lost population - everywhere population crushing - mission San Diego - no decent food, polluted water - 1898 mission SF - captive Christian soul - Catholic church own good stuff - no ownership - dormitory style living - American Indians had good lifestyle before - “Let’s just stop”—never stop/quit - father quintana, syphilis, rape women - mission Santa Cruz - problem: killing many people, solve it, redo the harm - apologized for the mission system - 1775 mission San Diego - uprising, resistant in CA - treat American Indians so bad - all visual signs of religion banned - 12 years came back with army more harsh 30 Wednesday, September 28, 2016 9.28 Cronon, Changes in Land - colonial experience that American Indians live with - human beings naturally make changes on environment - Romanticism, savagery, wild others - 1855 reflect romantic past of 1633 complain about changes advertise to England: attract more settlers grasses, strawberries, forest (extensive) - change to advantage burn off grass—>new grass shoot(deer like)—>food—>hunt easier domesticated animals—>human purpose - Mexico: domesticated corn—>reliable food resources, reproduce every year control, produce more, sedentary food sources - No virgin environment - 1845 forest - 200 years New England, animals gone - fishing - American Indians: not used up, enough to survive - eagles, pigeons, turkey decrease - romanticizing: French dream, beautiful savage, perfect not real (era) - romanticism of frontier, kill all the species - How did the nature of New England change after the Europeans came? - colonizers approve the changes - 1922 grizzly bears gone in CA, settlers killed 31 Wednesday, September 28, 2016 - buffalos, bisons were killed on purpose, =kill Indians - transforming, God’s providence—>Christianity - second England fertileness: came to continent for farm new land? - back to England, couldn’t feed their own populations, needed new resources - 1802 Manifest Destiny God’s idea: sea to the shining sea - beginning of end for native americans - comparison: garden - trend: keep natural spaces - settlers: large trees—>take down for ship and house - clearing forest and civilizing the wildness(tamed, civilized; native americans were part of it), reforestation, never deplete - 3 species, savage—>civilized - civilization problem 1972 gave up - first settler closely related to savage 1. savage: hunting, no farming, no garden, no domesticated animals, no social values not civilized, little hope Indian matter dilute 2. barbarians: cattle, some domesticated animals semi-sedentary on the road to civilization learn to garden, domesticate civilization completed 3. natural citizens/slaves: domesticate crops, farms, sedentary, govern no wild chasing - The landscapes were altered by the supposed social evolution, the human process of development from Indian or savage to clear of the forest , the barbarian to the civilized environment. - each state shapes landscape with visible human conformation 32 Wednesday, September 28, 2016 - white folks improve new society - savagery—>civilization(include environment) - In New England, fences, trees, forests, gone—>hungry - reservation, teach Christianity - nature and people: savagery—>civilization - Indians soul, take away and improve - ecological/cultural evolution - KEY nobody asked American Indians 33 Friday, September 30, 2016 9.30 Cronon - New England Indian societies - Seasonal diversity of environment - major economic group: villages (kin network), mobility, not fix - interaction with environment - size, location change seasonally —>people move with food - social, ecological mean: break/form - groups(most important community structure)>individuals - villages broke up and assembled by social(food, ceremony) and ecological(FOOD) needs - villages moved to greatest natural food supplies as temporary settlement - waterfall, fish spawning—>food, feasting and celebration - hunting in the fall—>scatter in the land - ceremonial done in the summer—>move - mobility - house shape different based on population density - In summer, small wigwams 1-2 families easily removable - In winter, long houses many families more permanent - food storage, when villages moved around, they made underground pits to bury dry food in dirt and covered the top - trade, no grocery store - tools: carried or abandoned, simple, serviceable, not have extensive tools - no horse, dogs, backpack style - seasonal moving cycle depends on habitats, know everything about animals 34 Friday, September 30, 2016 - agriculture: south: warm, productive, grain-survival north: not practice, rock; hunter and gather—>totally depended on animal life cycles starvation along coast, river, sea shores - boats, canoes - stop some fish not using up anything - improve technology to meet needs - fresh water fish, salmons - harvest - tidal zone, diet - man hunting protein, woman gather food - settlers: hungry too, start to harvest too, plenty took—>American Indians hunger increased - migratory birds: eggs - July-August: berries, plants summer: plenty costal mammals busy, clothing, housing - by mid-September: inland for winter, creek—>water - October-March: beaver, bear.. broke into small groups hunting men: killing, women: maintain the campsite work together to harvest snow heavy: ease to track animals snow not stayed on the ground: hard to hunt—>starvation - February-March: north—>food, scarce, hungry 35 Friday, September 30, 2016 colonists—>shortage food, not understand keep low population density - biological population is limited by minimum amount of food at the scarcity time of the year - available minimum - farming Indians - hunting, gathering and raising crops - different relationships with ecosystem - seeds—>next year gardening - some tribes eat seeds when terrible condition - not so dependent on hunting - gardening—>excess food, not rely on animals - 50% grain: storage for winter consumption - agriculture consequence—>population density - southern: farming field, move; dig, plant - April: plant shallow pit, minimum erosion - birds eat and ruin the corn, deer like the gardens - Indians: grow different plant in the same hills - grow around corn, protect - 3 sisters for amino acide and proteins, corn, beans, pumpkin and squash - European use fish in the holes as fertilizer - maximize carrying capacity, yielding increased - farm, garden: energy to produce - work physically hard—>eat, fuel - weeds: nutrients thief - soil moisture, near water 36 Friday, September 30, 2016 - tobacco, ceremonial - women: gardeners, rase children - men: killing, meat 1/2 - gender factor, how hard women work - south: women food process, March-late June, corp plant - semi-sedentary: harvest came back 37 Monday, October 3, 2016 10.3 Cronon - changes - colonial relationship - Cronon New England - villages: summer burning kill fleas move wigwam to skip fleas died people for another journey not interrupt move to avoid threathened war - women agriculture, process food, farming and gardening regular - men: canoe, fishing, hunting; dangerous, far from main campsite, greater risk of injury and death, irregular - labor under harsh conditions - European thought Indian men lazy, leisure time from dangerous circumstance (stereotype) - summer harvest over women: food production climax men: contribute greater time to food - winter: more fur and fat - autumn: gathering wild plant festival and ceremony—>thanks for summer harvest, fishing and plant dense settlement consume surplus food(harvest food) gambling(relaxing) and dancing(social, ceremonial) eating, feast, fall, celebrate food, first food: fish thanks water 38 Monday, October 3, 2016 - 1874 hunt buffalo ceremonies - feed anyone, redistribute - harvest season: time of plenty war move to hunting (Oct-Dec), small groups, maximum cover the ground arrow, trap before gun protein, not just meat, skin women process feather after raw kill - winter hunting: increasing knowledge of animal behavior with dogs proteins and vitamin needed amino acid, fat - effect on environment - leave a village long or wigwam - no toilet, waste disposal, nature clean up again, decompose - horses move to get grass - garden, garbage, move - winter huge fire, lots of wood - consume forest, follow the wood supplies—>fire - burn twice a year, park-like, burn off on purpose, travel easier - clean ground—>planting - North depended on fire - South recycled nutrient to soil - fire favorable: gatherable food(berries) - gender base, work hard, contribute to food supplies - women worked so hard, working system 39 Monday, October 3, 2016 - European interpretation based on their own expectation - lazy, not use all the land - criticism constant, justify taking, using small portion - European wanted settle place to feature them, owned, tittle - Indians: no personal possession, occupy, live with, rely on, not own the earth, share, not title - Europeans complained: failed to improve the land 40


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