PSY 270 Chapter 7 notes
PSY 270 Chapter 7 notes PSY 270
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Grissom on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 270 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
Definitions Examples Important information PSY 270 Chapter 7: Social and emotional Development in Infants Infants who are securely attached to their mothers may stray away them. Attachment: The affectionate bond between two individuals Characteristics: When children seen to be close Children experience stress with separated Strange situation: Infants are exposed to a series of separation and reunion; once the caregiver leaves, he/she is replaced with a stranger. The different behavioral reactions to separation and reunion were measured through observation and determined the attachment to caregiver Patterns of attachment 1) Secure (most US children) The mother is a child’s home base, meaning they use her as a safety blank to return to after the explore Exhibit mild destress when the mother leaves and wants to interact with her when she returns Easily comforted by her Effects: Children are happier, more sociable, and more cooperative Present fewer negative emotions towards strangers Higher attention spans and better at solving problems Fewer impulsive behaviors 5 years: better liked by both teachers and peers 2) Insecure Predicts psychological disorders for adolescence Occurs more often when moms: 1) Are mentally ill/abusive 2) Are slower to respond to the infant’s needs 3) Respond coldly towards infants Two types: 1) Avoidant Presents the least distress Ignores the mother when she returns 2) Resistant Presents the highest distress Shows unsure reaction when mother returns Most emotional type of attachment 3) Disoriented/disorganized Confused when mother leaves Presents contradictory behavior when she returns Ex) looks at mother but doesn’t approach her or gets fussy when picked up by mother Stability: When the caregiver is constant, attachment is also constant Early attachment tends to last into adulthood Adopted children can overcome early insecure attachments Stages: 1) Initialpreattachment (birth 3 months) Indiscriminate attachment attaching to anyone 2) Attach in the making (36 months) Presents a preference for attaching to familiar caregivers 3) Clearcut attachment (6 months) Emphasized attachment and dependence on primary caregivers What do parents have to do with attachment? Parental Role: Provide higher quality care Integrational transmission of attachment theory that if parents were securely attached to their parents, the offspring with be securely attached There is also a higher chance for the infant to attach if his/her sibling is also attached to their parents The caregiver’s reaction to an infant’s temperament also affects attachment (the more irritable the reaction, the more likely it is for an insecure attachment) Fathers: Have fewer interactions with the infant in comparison to the mother More likely to engage in physical play with the infant Most important facts to predict attachment: 1) Amount of quality time spent with the infant 2) Number of affectionate interactions with the infant Theories of attachment: Cognitive: Believed that children must develop object permanence before they develop an attachment; they must understand that the caregiver doesn’t disappear from the face of the planet when they are out of sight. 6 months: object permanence is developed 67 months: specific attachment Behavioral: Believed that attachment was learned through conditioning Caregivers feed and care for infants, and infants associate their caregivers with the reward of necessities Caregivers act as reinforcers Psychoanalytic: Agrees with behavioral theory that caregivers are reinforcers but adds that they are also love objects The attachment with a caregiver is the basis for attachments later on in life The caregivers role of gratifying an infant’s needs is crucial Freud defines an infant’s important needs as food and sucking needs Erikson defines an infant’s important need as the mother’s sensitivity towards all of the infants needs Contact Comfort: Believed that feeding isn’t critical for attachment and an infant’s basic need is physical contact/comfort Harlow’s monkey experiment: Using monkeys to determine if the need for food takes precedence over physical contact by using a wire surrogate mother with food vs. a cloth surrogate mother Monkeys preferred the cloth mother and used her as a home base when the “bear monster” was introduced Monkeys only went to the wire surrogate mother when panged with hunger Ethological Believed attachment is an inborn, genetic action pattern that occurs in the presence of species release specific stimuli Ex) in humans, babies smile at human faces What happens if there’s no one there to be attached to? Social Deprivation: Humans: Effects depend on the age of isolation Ex) children moved from foster care to adoption at less than 6 months have a better chance of making attachments Anyone older than 6 months exhibited low social and emotional development Children moved less than 3 months old showed no disturbance because they haven’t form any attachments yet There are high correlations between age of separation from foster care and 1) Later feeding or sleeping problems 2) Lower social responsiveness 3) Extreme attachment behavior Two types: 1) Institutionalized Children Material stimulation is present but there is no social stimulation Creates physical, intellectual, social, and emotional developmental problems 2) Separation from caregivers In an experiment, children were placed in cubicles for the first year of life with low adult interaction 4 months: low interest in adults 12 months: there are no words spoken Effects during childhood: 1) Increased incidences of personal, social, and psychological disorders 2) Decreased secure attachments to parents 3) Decreased intimacy with peers 4) Increased aggression, anger, and noncompliance with peers 5) Lower cognitive functions, and therefore low school performance Effects during adulthood: 1) Increased likelihood of aggression towards significant others 2) Increased risk for delinquency and academic failure 3) Increased likelihood for substance abuse Nonhumans: Harlow’s experiment with monkeys and isolation Effects: 1) Monkey avoided eye contact with other monkeys 2) Didn’t fend off attacks 3) Generally sat in a corner rocking back in forth in total isolation 6 month old monkeys from isolation placed with 34 month old monkeys play while older monkeys play after a few weeks