Biology Week 7 Notes
Biology Week 7 Notes EBIO 1030-002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Notetaker on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1030-002 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Caitlin Kelly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Biology-Human Approach 1 in Biology at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
EBiology Week 7 Meiosis I one diploid nucleus to two haploid nuclei Meiosis II two haploid nuclei to four haploid nuclei Recombination mixing of genetic information Crossingover breaking and rejoining of matched regions of DNA when aligned as homologous pairs in prophase I Metaphase Isister homologues are randomly aligned along the equator Mitosis one diploid nucleus to two diploid nuclei Gregor Mendel (18221264) Father of modern genetics Monk and scientist who studied pea plants Observed predictable patterns in the traits of pea plants and offspring Genes heritable units of DNA Allele specific version/type of a gene Locus location Genotype the particular alleles an individual has Phenotype the observable, physical traits Homozygous two copies of the same allele Heterozygous two nonidentical alleles An allele is dominant if its effect makes the effect of a recessive allele paired with it Capital letters dominant Lowercase letters recessive The letters used are f’s; however, the traits are not always represented by the letter f Homozygous dominant= FF Homozygous recessive= ff Heterozygous= Ff Stages of testing and genetic material passing down P= parent generation F =1first generation offspring of P*P F =2second generation offspring of F *F 1 1 Mendel’s law of segregation during meiosis, homologous chromosomes separate, thus the two alleles from the gene separate into two different gametes, gametes get one copy of a gene, no telling which allele will be passed on Punnett squares grids used to calculate the probability of genotypes and phenotypes in offspring Monohybrid crosses follow two alleles (statistical averages not density) Mendel’s law of independent assortment during meiosis, the alleles of two different genes get sorted into gametes independently of one another (dihybrid cross) Dihybrid cross 4*4 grid, follows two genes The letters resemble chromosomes Linked genes very close together, crossing over rarely occurs between them Dominant does not mean most abundant trait Mendelian genetics one gene codes for one trait Nonmendelian genetics exceptions to Mendel’s laws Codominance both alleles are fully expressed Incomplete dominance neither allele completely dominates and you get a blended phenotype Epistasis interactions between two (or more) genes affects phenotype, typically one gene product suppresses the effect of another EBiology Week 7 Pleiotropy multiple traits controlled by one gene Polygenetic inheritance a trait is controlled by two or more genes Environment has an effect on the expression of many genes
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