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Biology Week 7 Notes

by: Jenna Notetaker

Biology Week 7 Notes EBIO 1030-002

Jenna Notetaker

GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Biology-Human Approach 1
Caitlin Kelly
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Notetaker on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1030-002 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Caitlin Kelly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Biology-Human Approach 1 in Biology at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 10/06/16
E­Biology Week 7 Meiosis I­ one diploid nucleus to two haploid nuclei  Meiosis II­ two haploid nuclei to four haploid nuclei  Recombination­ mixing of genetic information  Crossing­over­ breaking and rejoining of matched regions of DNA when aligned as homologous  pairs in prophase I Metaphase I­sister homologues are randomly aligned along the equator  Mitosis­ one diploid nucleus to two diploid nuclei Gregor Mendel (1822­1264)  Father of modern genetics  Monk and scientist who studied pea plants   Observed predictable patterns in the traits of pea plants and offspring  Genes­ heritable units of DNA Allele­ specific version/type of a gene Locus­ location Genotype­ the particular alleles an individual has Phenotype­ the observable, physical traits  Homozygous­ two copies of the same allele Heterozygous­ two non­identical alleles  An allele is dominant if its effect makes the effect of a recessive allele paired with it Capital letters­ dominant Lowercase letters­ recessive  The letters used are f’s; however, the traits are not always represented by the letter f  Homozygous dominant= FF  Homozygous recessive= ff   Heterozygous= Ff Stages of testing and genetic material passing down   P= parent generation  F =1first generation offspring of P*P  F =2second generation offspring of F *F 1 1 Mendel’s law of segregation­ during meiosis, homologous chromosomes separate, thus the two  alleles from the gene separate into two different gametes, gametes get one copy of a gene, no  telling which allele will be passed on Punnett squares­ grids used to calculate the probability of genotypes and phenotypes in offspring Monohybrid crosses­ follow two alleles (statistical averages not density) Mendel’s law of independent assortment­ during meiosis, the alleles of two different genes get  sorted into gametes independently of one another (dihybrid cross) Dihybrid cross­ 4*4 grid, follows two genes  The letters resemble chromosomes Linked genes­ very close together, crossing over rarely occurs between them  Dominant does not mean most abundant trait  Mendelian genetics­ one gene codes for one trait Non­mendelian genetics­ exceptions to Mendel’s laws Codominance­ both alleles are fully expressed Incomplete dominance­ neither allele completely dominates and you get a blended phenotype  Epistasis­ interactions between two (or more) genes affects phenotype, typically one gene  product suppresses the effect of another  E­Biology Week 7 Pleiotropy­ multiple traits controlled by one gene Polygenetic inheritance­ a trait is controlled by two or more genes Environment­ has an effect on the expression of many genes 


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